Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

SEDIMENTS & SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. ROCK CYCLE Relative Percentages of Sedimentary Rocks.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "SEDIMENTS & SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. ROCK CYCLE Relative Percentages of Sedimentary Rocks."— Presentation transcript:

1 SEDIMENTS & SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

2 ROCK CYCLE

3 Relative Percentages of Sedimentary Rocks

4 SEDIMENT From From Weathering & Erosion Weathering & Erosion Precipitation from saturated solution Precipitation from saturated solution calcite, quartz calcite, quartz Product of evaporation Product of evaporation halite, gypsum halite, gypsum Unconsolidated- NOT cemented Unconsolidated- NOT cemented

5 SEDIMENT Particle size Particle size Pebbles, cobbles, boulders Pebbles, cobbles, boulders Gravel- > 2mm Gravel- > 2mm Sand- 2mm - 0.063mm Sand- 2mm - 0.063mm Silt - 0.063mm - 0.004mm Silt - 0.063mm - 0.004mm Clay- < 0.004 Clay- < 0.004 Deposition Clay-sized particle vs. clay mineral Deposition Clay-sized particle vs. clay mineral

6 SEDIMENT Transportation Transportation Abrasion Abrasion Rounding Rounding Sorting Sorting Deposition Deposition Environment of deposition- specific Environment of deposition- specific Preservation Preservation

7

8

9

10 SEDIMENT Transportation Transportation Abrasion Abrasion Rounding Rounding Sorting Sorting Deposition Deposition Environment of deposition- specific Environment of deposition- specific Preservation Preservation

11

12

13 SEDIMENT Lithification Lithification Compaction Compaction Decrease in pore space Decrease in pore space for very fine grain size (clay) for very fine grain size (clay) Cementation Cementation Clastic texture Clastic texture Cements- silica, calcite, iron oxide Cements- silica, calcite, iron oxide Crystallization Crystallization Crystalline texture Crystalline texture

14

15 SEDIMENT Lithification Lithification Compaction Compaction Decrease in pore space Decrease in pore space for very fine grain size (clay) for very fine grain size (clay) Cementation Cementation Clastic texture Clastic texture Cements- silica, calcite, iron oxide Cements- silica, calcite, iron oxide Crystallization Crystallization Crystalline texture Crystalline texture

16

17 SEDIMENT Lithification Lithification Compaction Compaction Decrease in pore space Decrease in pore space for very fine grain size (clay) for very fine grain size (clay) Cementation Cementation Clastic texture Clastic texture Cements- silica, calcite, iron oxide Cements- silica, calcite, iron oxide Crystallization Crystallization Crystalline texture Crystalline texture

18

19 TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Clastic or Detrital Clastic or Detrital Chemical- inorganic precipitation or evaporation Chemical- inorganic precipitation or evaporation Biochemical- Organic remains Biochemical- Organic remains shells, charcoal, plant fragments shells, charcoal, plant fragments

20 CLASTIC (Detrital) ROCKS Breccia and Conglomerate (> 2mm) Breccia and Conglomerate (> 2mm) Sedimentary Breccia- angular fragments Sedimentary Breccia- angular fragments Conglomerate- rounded fragments Conglomerate- rounded fragments Sandstone (2mm - 0.063mm) Sandstone (2mm - 0.063mm) Quartz sandstone Quartz sandstone Arkose (feldspar) Arkose (feldspar) Graywacke (appreciable amounts of silt/clay) Graywacke (appreciable amounts of silt/clay) Fine-grained Matrix Fine-grained Matrix Usually from turbidity currents Usually from turbidity currents

21

22

23 CLASTIC (Detrital) ROCKS Breccia and Conglomerate (> 2mm) Breccia and Conglomerate (> 2mm) Sedimentary Breccia- angular fragments Sedimentary Breccia- angular fragments Conglomerate- rounded fragments Conglomerate- rounded fragments Sandstone (2mm - 0.063mm) Sandstone (2mm - 0.063mm) Quartz sandstone Quartz sandstone Arkose (feldspar) Arkose (feldspar) Graywacke (appreciable amounts of silt/clay) Graywacke (appreciable amounts of silt/clay) Fine-grained Matrix Fine-grained Matrix Usually from turbidity currents Usually from turbidity currents

24 Quartz Sandstone

25

26

27

28 CLASTIC ROCKS Fine-grained Rocks Fine-grained Rocks Shale- fissile (in ‘sheets’) Shale- fissile (in ‘sheets’) Siltstone Siltstone Claystone Claystone Mudstone (silt and clay) Mudstone (silt and clay)

29

30

31 CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Carbonate Rocks Carbonate Rocks Limestone- made of calcite Limestone- made of calcite Inorganic varieties Inorganic varieties micrite, oolites, travertine micrite, oolites, travertine Dolomite Dolomite Recrystallization Recrystallization Chert- silica Chert- silica Evaporites Evaporites Rock gypsum Rock gypsum Rock salt Rock salt

32

33

34 BIOCHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Coal Coal Develops from peat Develops from peat plant fragments plant fragments Lignite Lignite Bituminous Coal Bituminous Coal Carbonate Rocks Carbonate Rocks Limestone- made of calcite Limestone- made of calcite organic varieties organic varieties Coquina Coquina Fossiliferous Limestone Fossiliferous Limestone Chalk Chalk

35

36 BIOCHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Coal Coal Develops from peat Develops from peat plant fragments plant fragments Lignite Lignite Bituminous Coal Bituminous Coal Carbonate Rocks Carbonate Rocks Limestone- made of calcite Limestone- made of calcite organic varieties organic varieties Coquina Coquina Fossiliferous Limestone Fossiliferous Limestone Chalk Chalk

37

38

39

40 SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES BEDDING- BEDDING- Principle of Original Horizontality Principle of Original Horizontality Bedding plane Bedding plane Cross-bedding Cross-bedding Graded bed Graded bed Mud cracks Mud cracks Ripple marks Ripple marks Fossils Fossils

41

42

43 SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES BEDDING- BEDDING- Principle of Original Horizontality Principle of Original Horizontality Bedding plane Bedding plane Cross-bedding Cross-bedding Graded bed Graded bed Mud cracks Mud cracks Ripple marks Ripple marks Fossils Fossils

44 DUNES

45

46

47 SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES BEDDING- BEDDING- Principle of Original Horizontality Principle of Original Horizontality Bedding plane Bedding plane Cross-bedding Cross-bedding Graded bed Graded bed Mud cracks Mud cracks Ripple marks Ripple marks Fossils Fossils

48

49

50 SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES BEDDING- BEDDING- Principle of Original Horizontality Principle of Original Horizontality Bedding plane Bedding plane Cross-bedding Cross-bedding Graded bed Graded bed Mud cracks Mud cracks Ripple marks Ripple marks Fossils Fossils

51 Mudcracks

52

53

54

55 SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES BEDDING- BEDDING- Principle of Original Horizontality Principle of Original Horizontality Bedding plane Bedding plane Cross-bedding Cross-bedding Graded bed Graded bed Mud cracks Mud cracks Ripple marks Ripple marks Fossils Fossils Body Fossils Body Fossils Trace Fossils Trace Fossils

56

57

58

59

60 FORMATIONS Large enough to show on a map Large enough to show on a map Distinctive from neighboring rock units Distinctive from neighboring rock units Named after geographic locations Named after geographic locations CONTACT CONTACT separation between 2 distinct rock units separation between 2 distinct rock units Sedimentary contact Sedimentary contact Other contacts Other contacts

61

62 INTERPRETATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Source Area Source Area Environment of Deposition Environment of Deposition Glacial environments Glacial environments Tillites Tillites Alluvial fan Alluvial fan Arkose Arkose River channel and flood plain River channel and flood plain Interbedded shales and sandstones; cross-bedded Interbedded shales and sandstones; cross-bedded Lake Lake Shales; interbedded siltstones and mudstones Shales; interbedded siltstones and mudstones Delta Delta

63

64 INTERPRETATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Source Area Source Area Environment of Deposition Environment of Deposition Glacial environments Glacial environments Tillites Tillites Alluvial fan Alluvial fan Arkose Arkose River channel and flood plain River channel and flood plain Interbedded shales and sandstones; cross-bedded Interbedded shales and sandstones; cross-bedded Lake Lake Shales; interbedded siltstones and mudstones Shales; interbedded siltstones and mudstones Delta Delta

65

66 Glacial Environment & Till

67

68

69 INTERPRETATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK Environment of Deposition Environment of Deposition Beach, Barrier Island, Dune Beach, Barrier Island, Dune Very well sorted quartz sandstones Very well sorted quartz sandstones Lagoon Lagoon Shales Shales Shallow marine shelf Shallow marine shelf Interbedded sandstones and shales; burrowed Interbedded sandstones and shales; burrowed Reef Reef Skeletal Limestones Skeletal Limestones Deep marine environment Deep marine environment Turbidites- sequence of GRADED sandstones to shales Turbidites- sequence of GRADED sandstones to shales

70

71 INTERPRETATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK Environment of Deposition Environment of Deposition Beach, Barrier Island, Dune Beach, Barrier Island, Dune Very well sorted quartz sandstones Very well sorted quartz sandstones Lagoon Lagoon fine grained sediment fine grained sediment Shallow marine shelf Shallow marine shelf Interbedded sandstones and shales; burrowed Interbedded sandstones and shales; burrowed Reef Reef Skeletal Limestones Skeletal Limestones Deep marine environment Deep marine environment Turbidites- sequence of GRADED sandstones to shales Turbidites- sequence of GRADED sandstones to shales

72

73

74 CALCAREOUS

75

76

77 INTERPRETATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK Environment of Deposition Environment of Deposition Beach, Barrier Island, Dune Beach, Barrier Island, Dune Very well sorted quartz sandstones Very well sorted quartz sandstones Lagoon Lagoon Shales Shales Shallow marine shelf Shallow marine shelf Interbedded sandstones and shales; burrowed Interbedded sandstones and shales; burrowed Reef Reef Skeletal Limestones Skeletal Limestones Deep marine environment Deep marine environment Turbidites- sequence of GRADED sandstones to shales Turbidites- sequence of GRADED sandstones to shales

78

79

80 INTERPRETATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK Plate Tectonics and Sedimentary Rocks Plate Tectonics and Sedimentary Rocks At convergent boundaries At convergent boundaries Uplift results in Uplift results in Very rapid rates of erosion Very rapid rates of erosion Thick accumulations of clastic sediment Thick accumulations of clastic sediment At transform boundaries At transform boundaries Rapid rates of erosion, deposition and burial Rapid rates of erosion, deposition and burial Good basins for petroleum exploration Good basins for petroleum exploration At divergent boundaries At divergent boundaries Initial stages of rifting- thick wedges of gravel and coarse sediment Initial stages of rifting- thick wedges of gravel and coarse sediment

81 Resources Non-Metallic Non-Metallic Sand and gravel Sand and gravel Limestone Limestone Clay Clay Gypsum Gypsum Energy Resources Energy Resources Oil and gas Oil and gas Coal Coal

82 Formation of Oil and Gas

83

84

85

86

87 U.S. Coal Production


Download ppt "SEDIMENTS & SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. ROCK CYCLE Relative Percentages of Sedimentary Rocks."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google