Presentation on theme: "Rocks and the Rock Cycle P.86 Standard IIIA: Earth Structure and Processes The student will identify Earth’s composition, structure and processes. The."— Presentation transcript:
Rocks and the Rock Cycle P.86 Standard IIIA: Earth Structure and Processes The student will identify Earth’s composition, structure and processes. The student will classify and identify rocks and minerals using characteristics including but not limited to density, hardness and streak. The student will describe the various processes and interactions of the rock cycle.
Learning Objectives – Rocks & the Rock Cycle P Describe the rock cycle and each of its processes. 4 Describe the three types of rocks, how they formed and how they are classified and identified. 4 Be able to identify rocks as either Igneous, Metamorphic or Sedimentary.
. Minerals make up rocks. Natural compounds and elements combine to form minerals. Elements combine to form the natural compounds. Rocks make up the Earth. There is a hierarchy to the elements of Geology Atoms make up elements.
Rocks and the Rock Cycle Chapter 4 Rock - a mixture of one or more minerals, mineraloids, volcanic glass and/or organic (living) matter
Rocks and the Rock Cycle Chapter 4 The Rock Cycle: Shows the processes by which Earth materials change to form the 3 different types of rocks.
Interactive Rock Cycle Animation 4 nce/terc/content/investigations/es0602/es06 02page02.cfm?chapter_no=investigationwww.classzone.com/books/earth_scie nce/terc/content/investigations/es0602/es06 02page02.cfm?chapter_no=investigation
Rocks Igneous Where Formed Intrusive Extrusive Chemical Composition Basaltic Andesitic Granitic Metamorphic Layers? Yes or No FoliatedNon-Foliated Sedimentary How Formed Detrtital Chemical Organic
Rocks and the Rock Cycle Chapter 4 Page. 87 There are three main types of rocks: 1. Igneous – rocks formed from magma or lava Classified based on 4 Where they formed –(Intrusive or Extrusive) 4 Chemical composition. –(Basaltic or Andesitic or Granitic) 2. Metamorphic – rocks changed from heat and pressure 4 Classified based on their texture. –(Foliated or Non-foliated) 3. Sedimentary – rocks formed from compacted sediments 4 Classified based on the composition & origin of the sediments. –(Detrital or Chemical or Organic)
Igneous Rocks P IGNEOUS ROCKS are rocks that formed from the cooling and crystallization of magma or lava. –Igneous rocks are classified two ways; 1.by where they were formed (Intrusive or Extrusive) 2.by their chemical composition. (Basaltic or Andesitic or Granitic) 4 1. Extrusive igneous rocks (aka Volcanic rocks) form at the earth's surface as lava cools - forming small crystals (can’t see with naked eye). –These rocks have a fine (small) crystalline texture. –Examples Basalt Rhyolite Scoria (no crystals) Pumice (no crystals) Obsidian (no crystals) Rhyolite
Igneous Rocks 4 2. Intrusive igneous rocks (aka Plutonic Rocks) form deep underground where magma cools slowly allowing big crystals to form that are easily seen. –These rocks have a coarse (large) crystalline texture. 4 Examples: –Granite –Gabbro
4 Igneous rocks are also classified by their chemical composition. 1.Basaltic (aka Mafic) Igneous rocks are composed of mostly Iron (Fe) and Magnesium (Mg). –Examples: Basalt, Gabbro 2.Andesitic Igneous rocks (aka Intermediate chemical composition). In between granitic and basaltic). –Examples: Andesite, Diorite 3.Granitic (aka Felsic) Igneous rocks are composed mostly of Silicon (Si), Oxygen (O) and Aluminum (Al). –Examples: Granite, Rhyolite Igneous Rocks
Metamorphic Rocks P Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have been changed in form due to heat, pressure, and chemical alteration. They are subdivided into two types FOLIATED – The mineral grains flatten and line up in parallel bands or layers. 4 Examples of foliated Metamorphic Rocks –Slate –Schist –Gneiss 4 2. NONFOLIATED - Mineral grains change, grow and rearrange but don’t form bands. 4 Examples of non-foliated Metamorphic Rocks –Marble –Quartzite
4 Metamorphic Rocks DO NOT MELT! 4 Minerals can grow larger in size. 4 Elements can rearrange and bond with different elements in the rock to form new minerals. –Greenstone on your desk 4 There are Levels of Metamorphism –Slate (less h&p)-Phyllite-Schist-Gneiss (more h&p) Metamorphic Rocks P. 97
4 Examples of rocks changing into met. Rocks due to heat and pressure. –Shale (sed) changes to slate –Basalt (Ig) changes to schist –Basalt (Ig) can also change to greenstone –Sandstone (sed) changes into Quartzite –Slate (met) changes into phyllite (met) then schist (met) then gneiss (met) –Granite (Ig) changes into granite gneiss Metamorphic Rocks P. 97
Sedimentary Rocks P Sediments are broken pieces of rocks and minerals. –Clay, silt, sand, gravel, cobble, boulder are sizes of sediments 4 Weathering is the process of breaking rocks into smaller pieces by wind, water, glaciers and gravity. 4 Erosion and deposition is the process of MOVING (transporting) these materials. 4 Sedimentary Rocks form when sediments are compacted (squeezed) and cemented (glued) together. 4 Sedimentary rocks can also be formed by evaporation or precipitation from solution. 4 Most sedimentary rocks are formed of layers of materials that have washed into lakes, rivers, and the ocean.
4 There are 3 groups of Sedimentary Rocks 4 1. Clastic (detrital) Sedimentary Rocks form from bits and pieces of other rocks Chemical Sedimentary Rocks consist of minerals deposited from a solution Organic Sedimentary Rocks consist of organic matter such as plants and animal remains. Sedimentary Rocks P. 101
Sedimentary Rocks 1. Detrital (Clastic) Sedimentary Rocks 4 Rocks formed from the compaction and cementation of sediments. 4 Weathering and erosion by gravity, rivers, ice/glaciers, wind, and waves carry sediment. 4 Examples –Conglomerate –Sandstone –Shale
2. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks 4 Chemically-formed sedimentary rocks come from minerals carried in solution into lakes and seas. 4 The minerals that form the rock precipitate out or are left when the solution evaporates. 4 Examples 4 Limestone (calcium carbonate) 4 Gypsum (calcium sulfate) 4 Salt (sodium chloride)
3. Organic Sedimentary Rocks 4 Organically-formed sedimentary rocks form from the remains of plants and animals. 4 Examples 4 Fossil limestone 4 Coal 4 Coquina 4 Chalk 4 Why can’t igneous or metamorphic rocks have fossils?
Rocks and the Rock Cycle - Chapter 4 PowerPoint Presentation You and your group will create a PowerPoint Presentation on three types of rock and the rock cycle. Each member is responsible for completing the research for the presentation using his/her textbook. Use the handout provided and complete the outline. Each member completes a section of the outline. All members then review the information and check for accuracy. All members work together in putting the information into the slide show. *You cannot begin the show until your research is completed. Diagrams, examples and pictures of rocks can be added by using the links on our web site. Copy, Paste any pictures you use – do NOT save them on the computer! Save all work into your group’s folder.
Rocks and the Rock Cycle - Chapter 4 PowerPoint Presentation Rubric for Scoring: PossibleEarned Title Slide with names and group picture3 pts._____ Metamorphic rock is formed when3 pts. _____ Types of metamorphic rock and definitions 4 pts. _____ Examples: picture and name (2)4 pts. _____ Igneous rock is formed when3 pts. _____ Types of igneous rock and definitions4 pts. _____ Examples: picture and name (2)4 pts. _____ Sedimentary rock is formed when3 pts. _____ Types of sedimentary rock and definitions6 pts. _____ Examples: picture and name (3)6 pts. _____ The Rock Cycle explanation6 pts. _____ Rock Cycle Diagram4 pts. _____ Questions/Presentation5 pts. _____ Total 55 pts. _____
Type your title here Group Name: Members:
Metamorphic Rock by: Metamorphic rock is formed when Types of metamorphic rock: Examples:
Igneous Rock by: Igneous rock is formed when Types of igneous rock: Examples:
Sedimentary Rock by: Sedimentary rock is formed when Types of sedimentary rock: Examples: