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Absolutism. The Hapsburg Empire 1519, Charles V ruled two empires – Spain and Hapsburg Years of war – religious and against the Ottomans Stressful – Monastery.

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Presentation on theme: "Absolutism. The Hapsburg Empire 1519, Charles V ruled two empires – Spain and Hapsburg Years of war – religious and against the Ottomans Stressful – Monastery."— Presentation transcript:

1 Absolutism

2 The Hapsburg Empire 1519, Charles V ruled two empires – Spain and Hapsburg Years of war – religious and against the Ottomans Stressful – Monastery in 1556 Hapsburg to Ferdinand (brother), other to son Philip (29)

3 Philip II and Divine Right Rule for 42 years Focused on government Absolute Monarchy – ruler with complete authority over government Divine Right – Authority to rule came directly from God Spent lots of time defending Catholicism

4 The Wars The Netherlands Protestant Rebels Fought against oppression and high taxes Broke off to make Dutch Netherlands England Queen Elizabeth encouraged Sea Dogs to rob Spanish ships Sent Spanish Armada (fleet) to fight Lost but remained world power

5 Spain’s Golden Age Painter – El Greco Means “The Greek” Studied Renaissance Art Pictures of royalty in bright colors Religious pictures for king

6 Economic Decline Lack of strong leaders after Philip brought country down Expensive wars around the world Lost power, France took its place

7 France Under Louis XIV Absolute Monarchy Huguenot – French Protestants

8 Rebuilding France Henry IV Huguenot Prince became Catholic to rule Edict of Nantes (1598) – Religious Tolerance Built up royal bureaucracy

9 Richelieu Cardinal who was 9 year old Louis XIII’s advisor Outlawed Huguenots, destroyed nobility Picked successor to keep building royal power

10 Louis XIV, the Sun King “I am the State” Became king at 5 Sun became symbol of absolute power – Sun King Deeply involved in government Intendents – Royal officials who collected taxes Intendents became loyal middle class Strong French army to enforce policies

11 Colbert and the Economy Finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert Set up policies to get money for France King spent much of it on his court or wars

12

13 Court Ceremonies Days spent with small, elaborate ceremonies Honor to buckle shoes or hold wash basin Levee – Rising Having nobles at court means they were not fighting each other or him

14 Cultural Flowering Sponsored many artists Introduction of ballet at Louis’ court Funded art schools

15 Wars of Louis XIV For 72 years, fought almost constantly Balance of Power – distribution of military and economic power to prevent one country from total rule Countries tried to keep France in check Tried to unite France and Spain but France wouldn’t allow it

16 Persecution of the Huguenots 1685 Revoked the Edict of Nantes Huguenots were work force, persecution hurt economy 100,000 fled France

17 The Tudors and Parliament 1485 to 1603 – Tudor Dynasty Recognized value of relationship with Parliament Parliament got used to being asked for important decisions

18 Early Stuarts: Royal Challenge Ruling family from Scotland King James I clashed with Parliament Dissenters – Protestants who differed with the Church of England New Group – Puritans wanted to “purify” the church

19 Parliament Responds 1625 Charles I takes the throne Wanted to raise taxes but Parliament required Petition of Rights Signed then dissolved Parliament, ignored for 11 years Needed them, they revolted

20 The Long Parliament Revolted against the King Tried and executed ministers King Charles lead army to attack, they raised own army

21 English Civil War Civil War from 1642 to 1649 Cavaliers – Wealthy, noble supporters of Charles I Roundheads – Lead by skilled general Oliver Cromwell Took the King in 1647

22 Execution of a King Set up court for King Tried for “tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy” Beheaded on his own signal

23 Challenges of Commonwealth Set up new republic – Commonwealth Supporters of Charles II (uncrowned King), attacked Levellers – all men and women should have rights in parliament Cromwell took title as Lord Protector

24 Puritan Society Imposed a “rule of Saints” Law required Sunday to be religious Every person should be able to read the Bible Religious tolerance to all but Catholics End to Commonwealth Cromwell died in 1658, Puritans lost grip on England Charles II came back from exile to rule

25 New clash with Parliament King James II took throne in 1685 Flaunted his Catholic Religion Parliament invited Mary and William to rule Bloodless coup called Glorious Revolution

26 English Bill of Rights Had to pass English Bill of Rights first Superiority of Parliament over monarch Habeas Corpus – Can’t be held in prison without being charged Limited Monarchy – Legislative body limits monarch’s power Radical idea at the time

27 The Thirty Years’ War Electors – Seven leading German princes of Empire Religious and Political War Protestant North vs. Catholic South Revolt against King Ferdinand Kings changed alliances to suit interests Fighting all over continent

28 Brutal Conflict Mercenaries wandered Europe and killed Murder, torture, famine, disease Depopulation – reduction of population Wolves roamed the streets 1/3 German population died

29 Peace 1648 – Peace of Westphalia France won war, Hapsburg lost everything Small countries got recognition (Switzerland) Germany broke up in to 360 small states

30 Hapsburg Unity and Diversity Hapsburgs kept title of Holy Roman Emperor Wanted to add land Grew but never centralized

31 Maria Theresa Daughter of Charles VI Charles had princes swear to recognize her rule Brilliant ruler Son, Joseph II inherited crown

32 Rise of Prussia – Fredrick II Son of Fredrick William – strong leader Taught art of war, but preferred arts Tried to run away, friend who helped was beheaded

33 Military Success Harsh training created harsh ruler Became known as Fredrick the Great

34 Keeping the Balance of Power Austria, Prussia, France, England, Russia Many alliances changed often Many other wars around the world

35 Peter the Great Became King at 10 Fascinated by the West Pushed Russia to a world power

36 Journey to the West Went to Europe to learn everything Pushed Russians to become Westernized Westernization – adoption of Western ideas

37 Autocrat and Reformer Brought all Russian institutions under his control – even church Boyars – landowning nobles Serfdom spread, tying peasants to land Imported Western technology and education Forced nobles to dress like Westerners and shave Killed any who disobeyed

38 Expansion Under Peter Search for Warm-Water Port Most ports were on Arctic Ocean Wanted place where water would be free of ice Tried to force through Ottoman Empire - lost War with Sweden 1700 – Fought with Sweden, lost early 1709 – Defeated Swedes and won land on Baltic

39 Expansion Under Peter Peter’s City New land – built St. Petersburg “Window on the West” Swamp land turned in to large modern city Toward the Pacific Signed treaties with China for north lands Vitus Bering found Bering Straight

40 Legacy of Peter the Great Expanded territory, gains ports, huge army Ended isolation Used terror to rule

41 Catherine the Great Efficient Ruler No heir from Peter, Romanov’s fought for power Got power by mentally unstable husband being killed Smart, efficient, reorganized government Encouraged Western ideas

42 Catherine the Great A Ruthless Absolute Monarch Cruel and repressive to peasants Many peasants forced in to serfdom Expanded land to get warm water port Partition of Poland Poland wasn’t centralized Three rulers decided not to fight – partitioned Partition – Divide up Divided 3 times, disappeared completely until 1919

43 Looking Ahead 4 of 5 world powers were absolute monarchs England had parliament Radical changes would cause revolutions


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