Presentation on theme: "February 27 th, 2012. First half of the 4 th century BCE a period of continuous warfare. The Corinthian War (394-386 BCE). Thebes and Sparta (377-362."— Presentation transcript:
First half of the 4 th century BCE a period of continuous warfare. The Corinthian War (394-386 BCE). Thebes and Sparta (377-362 BCE). The Social War (357-355 BCE). The hegemony of Macedon.
Sparta seeks hegemony until 371 BCE; seeking survival after 371 BCE. Athens must: 1. Hold on to control of its naval hegemony. 2. Maintain access to the Black Sea districts and the Chalcidice peninsula. 3. Frustrate the growth of Theban power and influence. Thebes desires: 1. To assert its freedom from Sparta down to 378 BCE. 2. Est. hegemony afterwards. 3. Thwart Athenian interests.
General – Greece in a state of economic and demographic devastation; proliferation of mercenaries. Athens - starved into submission; Long walls demolished; fleet dismantled; exiles repatriated; allegiance sworn to Sparta; democracy expelled (rule of the Thirty Tyrants). Ionian Greeks – Under Persian control. Sparta – Imperial hegemon of Greece; harmosts (i.e. Spartan governors) & garrisons imposed on defeated cities; allied to the Persians.
“In the year of the archon Alexias (405/4) the Athenians had the misfortune of losing the sea-battle at Aigospotamoi, as a result of which Lysandros became master of the polis and established the Thirty in the following way. Once the peace had been concluded on condition that the Athenians be governed by their ‘ancestral politeia’, the democrats attempted to preserve the demos; the upper classes who belonged to the political clubs, together with those exiles who had returned after the peace had been made, were eager for oligarchy; and those (from the upper classes) who did not belong to any club but were otherwise considered to be the best sort of politai were aiming for the ‘ancestral politeia.’….However, once Lysandros had sided with the oligarchs, the demos was inevitably intimidated into voting the oligarchy into power on a psephismos drafted by Drakontides of the deme Aphidna.” (?Aristotle, Athenian Constitution 34.2-35. Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 244A).
Pro-Spartan oligarchy. Two leading figures = Theramenes and Critias. Attacked the leading democrats (i.e. Brought charges against them, confiscated properties, exiles, murder). Reduced the no. of those eligible for public office to 500. Full citizenship limited to 3,000 of the ‘best’ citizens. Disarmed the people (i.e. all but the 3000). Behavior caused a political backlash led by Thrasyboulos with Theban assistance; democracy restored (403 BCE). Oligarchs seek Spartan assistance; Spartan king, Pausanias, narrowly defeats Tharsyboulos; agreement made and democracy restored; Tyrants and their supporters pardoned.
“Winter (404/3) had already begun when Thrasyboulos and the (other Athenian) exiles [i.e. in Thebes] occupied Phyle. The Thirty led out an army but were defeated, and decided to disarm the citizen-body in general and to kill Theramenes….Subsequently, however, the men from Phyle occupied Mounychia and defeated in battle the Thirty and their forces when they tried to save it; and when the danger was over the men from the astu returned, assembled in the agora on the following day and deposed the Thirty.” (?Aristotle, Athenian Constitution 37-38. Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 244A).
Not popular with anyone; Sparta imposes tribute on vanquished cities; many plundered; Ionian Greeks “sold-out” to Persia. Sparta an inconstant ally to Persia; Pursuing a policy of self-interest. 402 BCE – Elis sacked and plundered. 402/1 BCE – Power struggle in Persia; Cyrus II hires 13,000 Greek mercenaries. 401 BCE – Greek victory at b. of Cunaxa; Cyrus II killed; Xenophon and the march of the 10,000. Most of Greece and Persia alienated by Spartan behavior. 398 BCE – Sparta decides to “liberate” Ionian Greeks; Agesilaus sent on plundering raids into Lydia; Athens, Thebes, Corinth refuse to participate. Persian satrap (Pharnabazus) offers money to Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Argos to attack Sparta. The Corinthian War (395-387 BCE).
“Lysandros also suppressed the democracies and the other politeiai, leaving in each polis a Spartan harmost together with ten rulers chosen from the clubs which he had organised throughout the poleis. This he did indiscriminately, in hostile poleis and also in those which had become his allies; and he sailed along in a leisurely manner, establishing for himself thus the hegemonia of Greece. He did not, you see, appoint these rulers 0n the basis of birth or wealth: it was to gratify these foreign supporters and friends that he allotted control of affairs, giving them sovereign charge of rewards and punishments. He also took part personally in many massacres, helping to drive out his friends’ enemies. It was thus an intolerable example of Spartan rule that he gave the Greeks: the comic poet Theopompus likened the Spartans to barmaids, in that they allowed the Greeks a sip of the sweetest freedom and then poured in the vinegar, but bitter and harsh, because Lysandros not only denied the common people control of affairs but put the poleis in the hands of the most bold and contentious of the oligarchs.” (Plut. Lysandros 13.3-5. Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 250 B).
Tithraustes now appeared to believe that Agesilaos was contemptuous of the king and his doings, and, so far from leaving Asia, had every hope of taking on the King and capturing him; and he had no idea what to do about this. He therefore sent Timokrates the Rhodian to Greece, with gold to the value of 50 talents and orders to give it to the leading men in the poleis, in return, if possible, for firm guarantees that they would start a war with the Spartans. Timokrates arrived in Greece and handed over the gold to Androkleidas, Ismenias, and Galaxiodoros in Thebes, to Timolaos and Polyanthes in Corinth, and to Kylon and his supporters in Argos. The Athenians did not take their share of it, but they were eager for war nonetheless, in their belief that they would recover their empire. And those who received the money naturally began now to create ill-feeling against the Spartans in their own poleis; and once they had established this anti-Spartan hatred brought the most important poleis into coalition with each other.” (Xenophon, Hellenika III.5.1-2. Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 254A)
394 BCE – Athenian admiral (Conon) and Persian satrap (Pharnabazus) defeat Spartan fleet at b. of Cnidus; Lysander killed; Athens rebuilds the “Long Walls.” (392 BCE – Est. of the Chalcidian League). 391 BCE – Evagoras seizes control of Cyprus; sets himself up as king with Athenian support; Persia besieges Cyprus and decides to switch their support to Sparta. 391-386 BCE – Sparta/Persia gain upper hand over Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Argos. 386 BCE – The King’s Peace.
“King Artaxerxes thinks it right for the poleis in Asia to be his and of the islands Klazomenai and Cyprus, bur for the other poleis small and large to be autonomous, except for Lemnos and Imbros and Skyros, these to belong to the Athenians as of old. Whoever does not accept these peace terms, I will make war on him by land and sea, providing ships and money, alongside whoever is willing to accept them.” (Xenophon, Hellenika V. 1.31. Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 263).
Persia acting as guarantor of peace in Greece; really playing off poleis against each other; Persia as hegemon (?) Sparta the principal beneficiary; Sparta’s policy = to maintain hegemony by preventing leagues and confederacies. 386-5 BCE - Sparta forces Mantinea to pull down its walls; partitioned into five; Sparta forces the dissolution of the Boeotian League (Thebes). 382 BCE – Sparta marches north through Boeotia to break up the Chalcidian League; Spartans occupy the Kadmeia (i.e. Acropolis of Thebes); installs a pro- Spartan government; Theban nobles tried by Spartans for medism; democratic elements flee to Athens. 381-379 BCE – Spartans (with Macedonian allies) continue campaigns against the Chalcidian League (Olynthus); eventually break-up the confederacy and give the coastal cities to Macedon. 379/8 BCE – Spartan garrison ejected from Kadmeia with Athenian assistance (volunteers); democracy restored; war with Sparta. 378 BCE – The Second Athenian Confederacy (to 355 BCE).
The Second Athenian Confederacy. Thebes and the Boeotian League; Thessaly; Arcadia. Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. Macedon.
League members comprised primarily of former members of the Delian League. No compulsory tribute (phoros); voluntary contributions (syntaxeis). Autonomy of member states; can assume any form of government desired. Two decision making bodies of equal weight: 1. The Athenian Ekklesia. 2. Assembly of allies (Synedrion).
“The Athenians sent out their most distinguished men as envoys to the poleis that were subject to the Spartans, urging them to cling on to their common liberty. This was because the Spartans, relying on the great size of the forces at their disposal, were ruling these subjects contemptuously and harshly, and so many of them were beginning to turn to the Athenians. The first people to give way and revolt were the men of Chios and Byzantion, followed by the Rhodians and Mytilenians and some of the other islanders; and with the movement growing ever stronger throughout Greece, many poleis attached themselves to the Athenians. The (Athenian) demos, elated by the goodwill of the poleis, established a common synod of all the allies and appointed representatives to it from each polis; and it was agreed by common consent that, although the synod should meet in Athens, every polis great and small should cast only one vote, on an equal basis. It was also agreed that all poleis should be autonomous, under Athenian hegemonia.” (Diodorus XV. 28.2-4. Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 269A) Cf. Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 269 B for a list of confederacy members.
Boeotia divided into 11 chorai each with a principal astu. Each district supplied several judges and one military commander (Boeotarch). HQ and nominal hegemon of the league = Thebes; the Sacred Band. Democratic structure; all (propertied) citizens could participate in the assembly in Thebes.
Theban ejection of Spartan governors (378 BCE) and revival of Athenian hegemony (377 BCE) provoked Sparta to war. 378-371 BCE – General stalemate; a generally defensive war; repeated (unsuccessful) Spartan invasions into Boeotia; Thebans drive out Spartan garrisons and pro-Spartan elements from Boeotian cities; Athenians pursue naval operations against Spartan interests. 376 BCE – Athenians (Chabrias) defeats the Spartan fleet at b. of Naxos (49 of 60 ships destroyed); 17 new cities added to the Athenian Confederacy; additional members gained in Western Greece (i.e. Corcyra and Acarnania). 374-373 BCE – Athens suffering despite successes; short of funds; refused by Thebes; failed attempt at peace with Sparta; Sparta (unsuccessfully) besieges Corcyra; Athenian help requested but is late in coming (Athens running out of money). 373-372 BCE – Spartans summon help from Syracuse (60 ships sent); Athenians (Iphicrates) ambush the Syracusan fleet while beached; come away with 60 talents; Earthquakes in Sparta. 371 BCE – Athens and Sparta exhausted; In the mood for peace. 371 BCE – Peace of Callias between Athens and Sparta (Thebes refused to sign).
Sparta: 1. Humiliated over failures in Boeotia. 2. Loss of large part of the fleet at b. of Naxos. 3. Humiliation in Corcyra. 4. Demographic problems. 5. The earthquake. Athens: 1. Forced to rely increasingly on mercenaries. 2. Running out of money. 3. Increasingly unhappy with Thebes as an ally (i.e. Jealousy; Plataea). Provisions of the peace: 1. Similar to the King’s Peace. 2. Autonomy for all Greek cities. 3. No city could be forced into any confederacy. 4. Effectively the dismantling of hegemony and “leagues”. The basis of Theban refusal to sign: Boeotian League different from Peloponnesian and Athenian Leagues; Boeotia a cultural and political unity (i.e. Attica or Laconia); Sparta demanded the dismantling of the Boeotian League; Thebes (Epaminondas) demanded the dismantling of Laconia; Thebes excluded.
Sparta (King Cleombrotus), in Phocis (Boeotia) during peace negotiations marched against Thebes; Sparta demanding the dissolution of the Boeotian League. 371 BCE – B. of Leuctra (Theban under Epaminondas army routes Spartan troops); death of Cleombrotus; Thebes receives reinforcements from Thessaly; Sparta forced to evacuate Boeotia; Harmosts ejected; Democracies established. 370 BCE – Spartan allies begin to fall away (i.e. Tegea); Towns of Arcadia (central Peloponnese) unite against Sparta (Mantinea rebuilt; Megalopolis est. as capital of the new Arcadian League); Tegea joins the Arcadian League; Sparta (Agesilaus) marches on Arcadia; Arcadians seek help in Athens (rebuffed); Help sought from Thebes (granted). 370-369 BCE – Epaminondas leads Theban troops into Peloponnese; Ravages Laconia; liberates Messenian Helots; est. Messenian capital at Ithome; Sparta in dire straits (ca. 1500 full citizens; loss of helot labor etc.) and appeals to Athens (granted); Athenian troops (Iphicrates) sent to Arcadia; Sparta sent 2000 Celtic mercenaries from Syracuse; Epaminondas forced to withdraw. 368-367 BCE – Laconian towns beginning to defect to Arcadian League; Persia and Syracuse fail to broker peace (conditions favor Thebes; alienate everyone else including Arcadia). 366-365 BCE – Thebes’ third invasion of the Peloponnese; Corinth detached from Peloponnesian League (but neutral); Arcadia breaks with Thebes/allies with Athens!!! 365-362 BCE – War between Elis and the Arcadian League; Arcadia beginning to weaken (becoming friendly toward to Sparta); Thebes eager to prevent peace. 362 BCE – Thebes invades the Peloponnese again; B. of Mantinea; Spartans defeated by numerically superior alliance led by Epaminondas and the Thebans; Epaminondas dies; Spartan power broken forever.
The Major Players = 1. Thebes. 2. Thessaly. 3. Athens. 4. Macedon. Thessaly united into a major power by Jason of Pherae; held together solely by the will of Jason. 370 BCE – Jason assassinated; Brother (Alexander) attempts to maintain control; Cities of Thessaly revolt; Alexander seeks help from Athens (granted); Other cities ask for help from Macedon (granted). 369 BCE – Macedonians seize Larissa and Crannon; Thessalians therefore turn to Thebes; Pelopidas sent into Thessaly; Thessalian towns formed into a Theban protectorate; Dynastic conflict in Macedon results in the murder of the king (Alexander) and stasis; Athens intervenes (sets Perdiccas on the throne with Ptolemy as regent). 368 BCE – Pelopidas marches north to detach Macedon from Athens; Thebes promises to support Perdiccas in exchange for an alliance with Thebes; Macedon sends “hostages” to Thebes as sign of goodwill (Philip II); Pelopidas captured by Alexander of Pherae (Thessaly) on his return home. 367 BCE – Thebes (Epaminondas) marches into Thessaly and frees Pelopidas. 366-365 BCE – Athens (with the help of Ariobrazanes, satrap of Phrygia), denied access to Macedon and Chalcidice, seizes Sestos (critical for securing Black Sea grain and resources); Perdiccas assassinates Ptolemy and abandons Thebes for Athens. 364 BCE – Athens (Timotheus) with Macedonian help begins forcing Chalcidian towns into the Athenian Confederacy; Thebes constructs a fleet and sends out Epaminondas to detach Athens’ allies (moderately successful); Pelopidas marches into Thessaly against Alexander of Pherae; Thebes victorious at the b. of Cynoscephalae (Pelopidas killed). 363 BCE – Theban army returns to Thessaly and defeats Pherae; Thebes now hegemon in Thessaly.
After 362 BCE members of Athenian confederacy saw no need for the alliance. Athens refused to give up the alliance. Chios, Byzantium, Cos, and Rhodes overthrow their democracies. The Social War (357-355 BCE).
“While these things were going on, the inhabitants of Euboia fell into stasis among themselves, and when one side summoned the Boiotians to its assistance and the other the Athenians, war broke out in Euboia. Several battles and skirmishes took place, in which sometimes the Thebans were superior and sometimes the Athenians carried off the victory. No important pitched battle occurred, yet, even when the island had been devastated by internecine warfare and many men had been killed on both sides, the two sides barely came to an agreement as a result of this lesson taught by the disasters and made peace with each other. Now the Boiotians returned home and remained quiet, but the Athenians suffered the revolt of Chios, Rhodes, Kos and, moreover, Byzantion, and became involved in the war called the War with the Allies which lasted three years.” (Diodorus XVI. 7.2-4. Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 339).
Athenian fleet commanded by Chares and Chabrias. 357 BCE – Chabrias sent against Chios; Chares attacked Byzantium. 356 BCE – Allies ravage Imbros and Lemnos; Macedon takes advantage of Athenian preoccupation and seizes Amphipolis. 355 BCE – Chares’ mercenary troops revolt over arrears in pay; Athens seeks funds from Persia but is rejected; threatened into abandoning operations against their allies.
Theban hegemony (377-362 BCE) similar to Athenian and Spartan hegemony; a function of Athenian weakness rather than Theban strength. Greece divided as ever. Persia as strong as ever. Macedon the rising power. Economic exhaustion. Demographic problems (esp. in Sparta). Militarism an attractive way of life. Formation of federations of poleis prefigures Hellenistic developments.