Presentation on theme: "The Spartan Hegemony 404-371 B.C.. The Great Victory n Some months after the Battle at Aegospotami Athens surrenders. n The Terms: n Demolish the Long."— Presentation transcript:
The Great Victory n Some months after the Battle at Aegospotami Athens surrenders. n The Terms: n Demolish the Long Walls n Surrender all ships except 12 n Accept the lead of Sparta n An oligarchic government by 30 men is put in place by Lysander n Democracy is abolished n The Athenian Empire is inherited by Sparta
Lysander n Probably from a family of Inferiors, of noble descent but impoverished n Lover of prince Agesilaos (frequently Agesilaus) n Ambitious and Un-Spartan in some ways n He understood that the only way to defeat Athens was to create a navy. n He created a bond with the Persian prince Cyrus, son of king Darius II, who funded the Spartan fleet n He was power-hungry, but not enough to stage open revolt against the Spartan constitution
Agesilaos II (401-360) n A towering figure in Spartan history n He became king (Eurypontid dynasty) when Sparta was the ruler of the Greek world, and shortly afterwards went to conquer Persia n He died in Egypt, aged 84, hiring out his services as a mercenary to replenish the treasury of a broken and impoverished Sparta n Half-brother of king Agis II, unexpectedly became king, with Lysander’s support, after the lawful heir Leotychidas was declared illegitimate n He had undergone the agoge despite his lame leg (birth defect), where through relentless effort distinguished himself n Very popular among the men in the army, very influencial n Also very rigid, relentless in his hatred of Thebes, and very conservative, he influenced many wrong decisions and is largely responsible for the decline of Spartan power.
Pharnabazus / Tissaphernes n Rival Persian Satraps of Asia Minor n Pharnabazus brings about the end of Spartan Supremacy by funding the Athenian regeneration effort in the 390’s. n Tissaphernes was devoted to Artaxerxes II, and a sworn enemy of Sparta n He fell victim of queen Parysatis for his role in the death of her favorite son Cyrus. n Both seriously impeded Spartan plans in Asia Minor and her imperial ambitions through sharp diplomacy and bribery.
Darius II and Cyrus the Younger n Darius, maybe at the suggestion of his queen, Parysatis, changed Persian policy towards Greek affairs. n The new policy was to fund the weaker side and keep them fighting in a manner that served Persian interests n His heir Artaxerxes II successfully continued this policy. n His charismatic younger son Cyrus, funded Lysander to defeat Athens, and then revolted against his brother king Artaxerxes with help from Sparta and other Greek mercenaries (400 BC) n In the battle of Cunaxa Cyrus won but was killed. n The march of the mercenaries through Persia back to Greece confirmed that it is possible to defeat Persia
The Perils of Athens n The sounds of the flutes playing while Lysander’s workers were demolishing the walls of Athens haunted the Athenians for many years. n His puppet government exhibited such cruelty that ‘the Thirty’ came to be identified with pure evil in Athenian memory n A resistance was staged by Thrasybulus from the fortress of Phyle, which eventually led to civil war, and the rebels prevailed.
Athenian Restoration n Eventually the Agiad king Pausanias, who disliked Lysander and his tactics, worked out a settlement. n The Spartans did not intervene to support the Thirty n The democracy was restored in 403, and public life was reorganized n The old enemy was back, albeit diminished.
Spartan Government n Sparta inherited the Athenian Empire, but very quickly proved to be highly unsuitable for imperial leadership n Instead of the promised freedom, Sparta established oligarchic regimes (boards of 10: decarchies). n Instead of the autonomy under Athenian rule, now the cities were tightly controlled by Spartan garrisons (harmosts) n Instead of the rule of law under the Athenian empire, now they had the temperamental rule of ill-suited Spartan officials, excessively prone to bribery n Instead of fair commerce and free trade, 1000 talents from excessive taxation were sent to Sparta only in the first year n Soon the days of Athenian rule were seen with nostalgia, and much resentment arose against Sparta n Former allies like Thebes and Corinth created an alliance with Athens
The Campaign Against Persia n After the return of the 10,000 a campaign was staged against Persia n Agesilaos did well in Asia Minor, but Persian diplomacy seized the initiative before he could inflict serious damage to the empire. n They funded Athens and her allies to start war on Sparta. n The Corinthian war (395-387) was an indecisive conflict which damaged the Greek world as a whole.
Corinthian War n The alliance of Athens, Corinth, Thebes, Argos and others remains strong despite a number of setbacks by Spartan armies. n Initially funded by Persian money n A Persian fleet under the Athenian Conon destroys the Spartan navy off Cnidos (394 BC) n Then proceeds to effectively end the Spartan Empire in the Aegean n Athens tries to regain some of her possessions n At land the Spartan army retains an advantage but does not succeed to dominate n The Athenian Iphicrates using light troops succeeds in inflicting casualties on Spartan troops, and reveals the flaws of the Spartan phalanx. n This inconclusive warfare ends with the King’s peace in 387/6 n Spartan power has diminished, and in the coming years Sparta is going to serve as the police force of the Great King of Persia in Greece.