Presentation on theme: "BELL WORK DIRECTIONS: DURING THE FIST FIVE MINUTES OF CLASS, ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE NOTES FROM THE BACK TABLE IN COMPLETE SENTENCE. BE PREPARED."— Presentation transcript:
BELL WORK DIRECTIONS: DURING THE FIST FIVE MINUTES OF CLASS, ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON THE NOTES FROM THE BACK TABLE IN COMPLETE SENTENCE. BE PREPARED TO SHARE YOUR ANSWERS WITH THE CLASS. 1)WHY DO COUNTRIES GO TO WAR? (WRITE DOWN AT LEAST 3 REASONS) 2)DO YOU THINK THEY ARE LEGITIMATE REASONS? WHY OR WHY NOT?
OBJECTIVES I will identify and describe the causes of the Peloponnesian War I will identify and describe the main events in the Peloponnesian War I will analyze the effects of the Peloponnesian War
THE BEGINNINGS The Delian League: 478 to 336 BCE - Military organization with the same enemies - Seat on Delian Council - Phoros – town gave ‘tribute’ (money) to Athens for protection - Athens became the hegemon Peloponnesian League: 6 th to 4 th century BCE - Sparta = hegemon - Elis and Corinth other major allies - Congress of Allies - Loose confederation - Allegiance to Sparta for protection in foreign affairs
CAUSES Sparta vs. Athens Athens growing too big? Athens forbid Megara from trading in Athenian empire harbors Athens blockaded Potidaea Potidaea rebelled against Athens Looking to Corinth (ally of Sparta) for help Corinth already upset with Athens for helping Corcyra vs. Corinth Sparta gave Athens ultimatums Sparta will attack unless you stop economic sanction on Megara AND stop blockade of Potidaea
PERICLES "If we do go to war, harbor no thought that you went to war over a trivial affair. For you this trifling matter is the assurance and the proof of your determination. If you yield to their demands, they will immediately confront you with some larger demand, since they will think that you only gave way on the first point out of fear. But if you stand firm, you will show them that they have to deal with you as equals... When our equals, without agreeing to arbitration of the matter under dispute, make claims on us as neighbors and state those claims as commands, it would be no better than slavery to give in to them, no matter how large or how small the claim may be."
PHASE 1: ARCHIDAMIAN WAR 431 – 421 BCE King Archidamian II (Sparta) invaded Attica (Athenian countryside) Pericles’s new strategy = use navy to attack coastal towns on Peloponnese - too expensve Cleon came to power and sent Demsothenes to command the navy Demsothenes had many victories - 40 triemmes to Pylos – built a fortress to hold runaway helots Sparta took Amphipolis under the command of Brasidas During battle, Cleon, Demsothens, and Brasidas died Peace of Nicias – March 421 BCE -Back to status quo - Pylos returned to Sparta and Amphipolis returned to Athens
PHASE 2: THE ENTR’ACTE The Sicilian Expedition - 415 – 413 BCE - Athens tried to conquer parts of Sicily - Defeated by Spartans
PHASE 3: DECELEAN / IONIAN WAR 431 – 404 BCE Probouloi formed in Athens (ten wiise men, including Sophocles) King Agis of Sparta occupied Decelea (outside of Attica) and built a fortress - gained Chios and Miletos (former Delian League members) Persia and Sparta became allies - Sparta recognized Persia as ruler of Asia Minor - Persia gave Sparta money and timber Athens defeated in naval battle at Aegospotami - 200 Spartan ships vs 170 Athenian ships
AFTERMATH AND EFFECTS Athens Sparta Corinthian Wars (396 – 387 BCE) - Sparta vs Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Perisa - Sparta Succeeded to Persia (still major power in Greece) - lost reputation and men
HOMEWORK Draw a picture illustrating the following aspects of the Peloponnesian War: Causes Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Aftermath