Mutualism: an intimate association between two species that offers advantage to both species
Amensalism Examples Bread mold and bacteria algal blooms can lead to the death of many species of fish, however the algae do not benefit from the deaths of these individuals. occurs when one species hurts another, but does not benefit from this interaction -/0 relationship
Industrial Symbiosis a nitrogen producer selling excess heat and CO2 to a greenhouse grower that is then able to increase yields and cut energy costs a construction company using discarded car tires to line a drainage ditch, avoiding fresh materials.
Attack of the Bot Flies!! Order Diptera, Family Cuterebridae, Dermatobia hominis Torsalo or “Human Bot Fly” is native to Central and South America Exhibits both Commensalism and Parasitism
Life Cycle Female torsalos glue their eggs to the abdomen of a mosquito or fly Body heat from the host triggers rapid hatching of the torsalo's eggs. The tiny maggots burrow quickly into the skin (even through clothing) and begin development as internal parasites. Larvae develop over a period of 5-10 weeks, forming a painful cyst under the skin. When mature, they emerge from the host, fall to the ground, and pupate. The adult fly emerges several weeks later.
General Characteristics An adult torsalo is a rather large insect (10-15 mm) with a bluish-black body, brown wings, and yellow markings on the face and legs. Fastest flies in the world (80/kph)!! Adults lack maxillary palps and are thought to be unable to feed due to their atrophied mouthparts. Rely on food reserve from larval stage. Larvae have sharp spikes to anchor themselves to host Bacteria microhabitat?
Rodent/Tree Squirrel Bot Fly Eggs are layed on habitat substrates rather than directly on host animal.
Nose (Sheep) Bot Fly Living maggots are deposited in the nostrils of sheep. Harmful to sheep due to migration of larvae through the nasal passageways and sinuses. The larvae remain in the sinuses for 8 to 10 months and then are sneezed out of the nostrils.
Horse Bot Fly Adult females deposit eggs on the horse's legs, shoulders, chin, throat and the lips. Bot eggs enter the horse's mouth and develop into larvae. The larvae migrate and attach themselves to the mucus lining of the horse's stomach, remaining there during the winter. After about 10 months, they detach themselves and are passed in the feces. The larvae burrow into the ground and mature into adult flies.
References Symbiosis – Torsalo Botfly The Bot Fly - Insects, Bugs, Flies http://entomology.unl.edu/ent108/BOTW/BOTW3_rabbit_botfly.ht ml http://entomology.unl.edu/ent108/BOTW/BOTW3_rabbit_botfly.ht ml Screwworm flies as agents of wound myiasis The Associated Microflora to the Larvae of Human Bot Fly Dermatobia hominis L. Jr. (Diptera: Cuterebridae) and its Furuncular Lesions in Cattle The Associated Microflora to the Larvae of Human Bot Fly Dermatobia hominis L. Jr. (Diptera: Cuterebridae) and its Furuncular Lesions in Cattle Bot Flies Are Our Friends – About Human Botfly, Bot Fly, Botflies, Torsalo, Dermatobia hominis biology, economic effects and early efforts to eradicate hypoderma TABLE OF CONTENTS
Symbiosis Close interactions between two or more different species African Crocodile and Blackbird Plover Clown Fish and Sea Anemone Bees and Flowers
Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism ◦ Both species benefit from the interaction
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism ◦ One species benefits and the other species is harmed ◦ Parasite Organism that lives on or within a host species Parasitic Wasp Tapeworm (Taenia solium) Deer Tick ( Ixodes scapularis )
Symbiotic Relationships Amensalism ◦ One species is harmed and the other species is neither harmed nor benefits from the relationship. ◦ Antibiosis and Competition Bread Mold Penicillium Overgrowth of algae
Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism ◦ One species benefits and the other species does not gain or lose anything Barnacles and Whales Cattle and Egrets