8Mutualism: an intimate association between two species that offers advantage to both species
9ExamplesBread mold and bacteriaalgal blooms can lead to the death of many species of fish, however the algae do not benefit from the deaths of these individuals.occurs when one species hurts another, but does not benefit from this interaction-/0 relationshipAmensalism
11a nitrogen producer selling excess heat and CO2 to a greenhouse grower that is then able to increase yields and cut energy costsa construction company using discarded car tires to line a drainage ditch, avoiding fresh materials.Industrial Symbiosis
12Attack of the Bot Flies!!Order Diptera, Family Cuterebridae, Dermatobia hominisTorsalo or “Human Bot Fly” is native to Central and South AmericaExhibits both Commensalism and Parasitism
13Life CycleFemale torsalos glue their eggs to the abdomen of a mosquito or flyBody heat from the host triggers rapid hatching of the torsalo's eggs. The tiny maggots burrow quickly into the skin (even through clothing) and begin development as internal parasites.Larvae develop over a period of 5-10 weeks, forming a painful cyst under the skin. When mature, they emerge from the host, fall to the ground, and pupate. The adult fly emerges several weeks later.
14General Characteristics An adult torsalo is a rather large insect (10-15 mm) with a bluish-black body, brown wings, and yellow markings on the face and legs.Fastest flies in the world (80/kph)!!Adults lack maxillary palps and are thought to be unable to feed due to their atrophied mouthparts. Rely on food reserve from larval stage.Larvae have sharp spikes to anchor themselves to hostBacteria microhabitat?
18Rodent/Tree Squirrel Bot Fly Eggs are layed on habitat substrates rather than directly on host animal.
19Nose (Sheep) Bot FlyLiving maggots are deposited in the nostrils of sheep.Harmful to sheep due to migration of larvae through the nasal passageways and sinuses.The larvae remain in the sinuses for 8 to 10 months and then are sneezed out of the nostrils.
20Horse Bot FlyAdult females deposit eggs on the horse's legs, shoulders, chin, throat and the lips.Bot eggs enter the horse's mouth and develop into larvae. The larvae migrate and attach themselves to the mucus lining of the horse's stomach, remaining there during the winter.After about 10 months, they detach themselves and are passed in the feces. The larvae burrow into the ground and mature into adult flies.
21References Symbiosis – Torsalo Botfly The Bot Fly - Insects, Bugs, FliesmlScrewworm flies as agents of wound myiasisThe Associated Microflora to the Larvae of Human Bot Fly Dermatobia hominis L. Jr. (Diptera: Cuterebridae) and its Furuncular Lesions in CattleBot Flies Are Our Friends – AboutHuman Botfly, Bot Fly, Botflies, Torsalo, Dermatobia hominisbiology, economic effects and early efforts to eradicate hypodermaTABLE OF CONTENTS
22Symbiosis Close interactions between two or more different species Clown Fish and Sea AnemoneAfrican Crocodile and Blackbird PloverBees and Flowers
23Symbiotic Relationships MutualismBoth species benefit from the interactionSymbiotic Relationships
24Symbiotic Relationships ParasitismOne species benefits and the other species is harmedParasiteOrganism that lives on or within a host speciesSymbiotic RelationshipsParasitic WaspDeer Tick (Ixodes scapularis)Tapeworm (Taenia solium)
25Symbiotic Relationships AmensalismOne species is harmed and the other species is neither harmed nor benefits from the relationship.Antibiosis and CompetitionBread Mold PenicilliumOvergrowth of algaeSymbiotic Relationships
26Symbiotic Relationships CommensalismOne species benefits and the other species does not gain or lose anythingSymbiotic RelationshipsBarnacles and WhalesCattle and Egrets