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Symbiosis: Living Together

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Presentation on theme: "Symbiosis: Living Together"— Presentation transcript:

1 Symbiosis: Living Together

2 3 types of symbiotic relationships mutualism, commensalism, parasitism

3 Parasitism: a parasite expliots the resources of its host to its own benefit, while harming the host


5 Commensalism: two specifies form a close association where one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped.

6 Shrimp and anemone

7 Commensalism

8 Mutualism: an intimate association between two species that offers advantage to both species

9 Examples Bread mold and bacteria algal blooms can lead to the death of many species of fish, however the algae do not benefit from the deaths of these individuals. occurs when one species hurts another, but does not benefit from this interaction -/0 relationship Amensalism

10 Parasitism

11 a nitrogen producer selling excess heat and CO2 to a greenhouse grower that is then able to increase yields and cut energy costs a construction company using discarded car tires to line a drainage ditch, avoiding fresh materials. Industrial Symbiosis

12 Attack of the Bot Flies!! Order Diptera, Family Cuterebridae, Dermatobia hominis Torsalo or “Human Bot Fly” is native to Central and South America Exhibits both Commensalism and Parasitism

13 Life Cycle Female torsalos glue their eggs to the abdomen of a mosquito or fly Body heat from the host triggers rapid hatching of the torsalo's eggs.   The tiny maggots burrow quickly into the skin (even through clothing) and begin development as internal parasites. Larvae develop over a period of 5-10 weeks, forming a painful cyst under the skin.   When mature, they emerge from the host, fall to the ground, and pupate.   The adult fly emerges several weeks later.

14 General Characteristics
An adult torsalo is a rather large insect (10-15 mm) with a bluish-black body, brown wings, and yellow markings on the face and legs. Fastest flies in the world (80/kph)!! Adults lack maxillary palps and are thought to be unable to feed due to their atrophied mouthparts. Rely on food reserve from larval stage. Larvae have sharp spikes to anchor themselves to host Bacteria microhabitat?

15 Treatment

16 Bot Flyoramma! Cattle Bot Fly Rodent/Tree Squirrel Bot Fly
Nose (Sheep) Bot Fly Stomach (Horse) Bot Fly


18 Rodent/Tree Squirrel Bot Fly
Eggs are layed on habitat substrates rather than directly on host animal.

19 Nose (Sheep) Bot Fly Living maggots are deposited in the nostrils of sheep. Harmful to sheep due to migration of larvae through the nasal passageways and sinuses. The larvae remain in the sinuses for 8 to 10 months and then are sneezed out of the nostrils.

20 Horse Bot Fly Adult females deposit eggs on the horse's legs, shoulders, chin, throat and the lips. Bot eggs enter the horse's mouth and develop into larvae. The larvae migrate and attach themselves to the mucus lining of the horse's stomach, remaining there during the winter. After about 10 months, they detach themselves and are passed in the feces. The larvae burrow into the ground and mature into adult flies.

21 References Symbiosis – Torsalo Botfly
The Bot Fly - Insects, Bugs, Flies ml Screwworm flies as agents of wound myiasis The Associated Microflora to the Larvae of Human Bot Fly Dermatobia hominis L. Jr. (Diptera: Cuterebridae) and its Furuncular Lesions in Cattle Bot Flies Are Our Friends – About Human Botfly, Bot Fly, Botflies, Torsalo, Dermatobia hominis biology, economic effects and early efforts to eradicate hypoderma TABLE OF CONTENTS

22 Symbiosis Close interactions between two or more different species
Clown Fish and Sea Anemone African Crocodile and Blackbird Plover Bees and Flowers

23 Symbiotic Relationships
Mutualism Both species benefit from the interaction Symbiotic Relationships

24 Symbiotic Relationships
Parasitism One species benefits and the other species is harmed Parasite Organism that lives on or within a host species Symbiotic Relationships Parasitic Wasp Deer Tick (Ixodes scapularis) Tapeworm (Taenia solium)

25 Symbiotic Relationships
Amensalism One species is harmed and the other species is neither harmed nor benefits from the relationship. Antibiosis and Competition Bread Mold Penicillium Overgrowth of algae Symbiotic Relationships

26 Symbiotic Relationships
Commensalism One species benefits and the other species does not gain or lose anything Symbiotic Relationships Barnacles and Whales Cattle and Egrets

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