Symbiosis Symbiosis is a close ecological relationship between the individuals of two (or more) different species.
Commensalism Commensalism is a relationship between two living organisms where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped.
Some birds live among cattle to eat the insects stirred up as they walk. One example are egrets who hunt for insects near a grazing animal's mouth.
One animal attaching itself to another for transportation such as barnacles attach to shells or whales or a shrimp riding on a sea slugs. barnacles on whale’s tail and clam shrimp riding on a sea slug
One species uses a second organism for housing such as small mammals or birds that lives in holes in trees or orchids which live in trees. Orchid in rainforest Venezuela
Parasitism One organism, usually physically smaller of the two (the parasite) benefits and the other (the host) is harmed Parasitism involves one organism living on or inside another organism and harming it.
Ticks and fleas that live in a host animal's fur bite the animal and drink its blood are parasites.
Insects such as mosquitoes feeding on a host are parasites.
Vines such as Kudzu growing on Trees Kudzu is native to Japan and China, however it grows well in the Southeastern United States. Kudzu is a vine that when left uncontrolled will eventually grow over almost any fixed object in its proximity including other vegetation. Kudzu, over a period of several years will kill trees by blocking the sunlight.
The roots of the Owl Clover are partly parasitic on the roots of other desert wildflowers.
Mutualism Both species benefit from the interaction.
Clownfish & Sea Anemone The clownfish gets food scraps from the anemone and uses the stinging cells of the anemone for protection. The anemone gets algal cover cleaned off by the clownfish and absorbs nutrients from the clown fish’s waste.
Flowers and their Pollinators (examples: Bees and hummingbirds gather nectar and spread pollen.)
Birds and mammals eat berries and fruits while the plant benefits by the dispersal of it seeds.
Algae and Fungi > Lichen - Alga gets water and nutrients from the fungus and the fungus gets food from the algae.
Cleaners eat insect pests from the skin of animals. (ex: Egyptian plover cleans giraffes and buffaloes)
Many herbivores such as cows, sheep, deer, horses and rabbits depend on bacteria that live in their stomachs to break down the plant material.
Coral Reefs- The corals get food and the algae get protection.
Predation One organism eats another (Carnivores eats animals.) One organism hunts and kills another for food.
Symbiotic Relationships 1. Commensalism - one species benefits, the other is unaffected 2. Parasitism - one species benefits, the other is harmed 3. Mutualism - both species benefit 4. Predation - one organism eats another 5. Competition – two organisms compete for the same resources