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Delmar Learning Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company Nursing Leadership & Management Patricia Kelly-Heidenthal
Delmar Learning Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company Chapter 6: Personal and Interdisciplinary Communication
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company3 Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, the reader should be able to: Detail current trends in society that impact communication. Describe the communication process. Relate characteristics of verbal and nonverbal communication. Increase effectiveness of communication by using basic communication skills. List barriers to communication. Describe typical nursing communication activities in the workplace.
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company4 Trends in Society That Impact Communication Increasing social diversity Changing/differing beliefs Aging population Shift to computerized communication
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company5 Elements of the Communication Process Communication is: The exchange of information or opinions An interactive process that is a means to an end Influenced by the context in which it occurs
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company6 Elements of the Communication Process Sender: the “who” in communication, i.e., the person who initiates communication Message: the “what” in communication; consists of verbal and/or nonverbal stimuli that are taken in by the receiver Receiver: the person who takes in the message and analyzes it Feedback: the new message that is generated by the receiver in response to the original message from the sender
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company7 Channels of Communication Visual (seeing) Auditory (hearing) Kinesthetic (touching)
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company8 Modes of Communication Verbal: spoken Nonverbal: facial expressions, posture, gait, body movements, position, gestures, and touch Electronic: uses electronic media that do not have characteristics of the other modes
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company9 Level of Communication Public: communication with a group of people with a common interest. Communicator acts primarily as a sender of information. Feedback is typically limited. Intrapersonal: internal communication within an individual. This is used to process observations, analyze situations, resolve doubts, or reaffirm beliefs. Interpersonal: communication between individuals, person-to-person, or in small groups.
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company10 Organizational Communication Avenues of communication are often defined by an organization’s formal structure. Downward: communication originates at top or upper levels of organization and works downward. Upward: communication originates at some level below the top of the structure and moves upward. Lateral: communication occurs among people at similar levels within the organization.
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company11 Organizational Communication Diagonal: communication occurs when people who may be on different levels of the organizational chart communicate with each other. Grapevine: an informal and unstructured avenue of communication. Its major benefit is speed, but its major drawback is its unreliability.
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company12 Communication Skills Attending: active listening Responding: verbal and nonverbal acknowledgment of the sender’s message Clarifying: communicating as specifically as possible to help the message become clear Confronting: working jointly with others to resolve a problem or conflict
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company13 Barriers to Communication Gender: men and women may process information differently. Culture: different cultures may have different beliefs, practices, and assumptions. Anger: an irrational response that arises from irrational ideas: can’t-stand-it-itis awfulizing shoulding and musting undeservingness and damnation
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company14 Barriers to Communication Incongruent responses: when words and actions in a communication do not match the inner experience of self and/or are inappropriate to the context. Conflict: arises when ideas or beliefs are opposed.
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company15 Workplace Communication Superiors Observe professional courtesies. Dress professionally. Arrive for the appointment on time. Be prepared to state the concern clearly and accurately. Provide supporting evidence and anticipate resistance to any requests. Separate out your need from your desires. State a willingness to cooperate in finding a solution and then match behaviors to words. Persist in the pursuit of a solution.
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company16 Workplace Communication Coworkers Report patient information accurately, informatively, and succinctly. Subordinates Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Delegate clearly and effectively. Offer positive feedback.
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company17 Workplace Communication Physicians/other health care professionals Strive for collaboration, keeping the patient goal central to the discussion. Present information in a straightforward manner. Clearly delineate the problem, and support the assertion with pertinent evidence. Remain calm and objective even if the physician does not cooperate. Follow the institution’s procedure for getting the patient treated and then document the actions taken.
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company18 Workplace Communication Patients and families Use touch as a way to communicate caring and concern. Occasionally, language barriers will limit communication to the nonverbal mode. Be open and honest while respecting patients and families. Honor and protect patients’ privacy with both actions and words
Chapter 6Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company19 Workplace Communication Mentor/prodigy Listen Affirm Counsel Encourage Seek input from the novice Outline anticipated challenges with suggestions for how to manage them Use role-playing, where the preceptor describes a theoretical situation and allows the novice to practice her response
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