2 Learning Objectives Slide 1 of 3 1. Explain the role of communication in the organization and why it is so complex for managers to understand.2. Define communication and explain how to achieve high-quality communication.3. Describe the elements of the communications process.4. Identify the primary categories of interpersonal communication.
3 Learning Objectives Slide 2 of 3 5. Discuss the role of technological communication and information use in the workplace.6. Address the primary reasons why managers communicate.7. Explain the barriers that interfere with effective communication.8. Discuss the types of formal communication channels.
4 Learning Objectives Slide 3 of 3 9. Describe the principles for effective feedback.10.Specify the guidelines for becoming a good listener.
5 Communication Complexity Communication is a complex process that requires constant attention so that intended messages are sent and received. Communication is essential to management; it is the process through which things get done in organizations.
6 Defining Communication and Achieving Quality The process through which managers coordinate, lead, and influence subordinates; a process in which one person or group evokes a shared or common meaning in another person or group.Defining communication is relatively simple, but achieving high-quality communication is both complicated and difficult.
7 Basic Elements in the Communication Process Slide 1 of 5 NoiseNoiseSocial contextSenderEncodingMessageDecodingReceiverNoiseNoise
8 Basic Elements in the Communication Process Slide 2 of 5 Social ContextThe setting in which the communication takes place.Sender and MessageEncoding:The process that translates the sender’s ideas into a systematic set of symbols or a language expressing the communicator’s purpose.
9 Basic Elements in the Communication Process Slide 3 of 5 Messages and ChannelMessagesThe tangible forms of coded symbols that are intended to give a particular meaning to the information or data.ChannelThe carrier of the message or the means by which the message is sent.
10 Basic Elements in the Communication Process Slide 4 of 5 ReceiverDecodingThe translation of received messages into interpreted meanings.FeedbackThe process of verifying messages and the receiver’s attempts to ensure that the message he or she decoded is what the sender really meant to convey.
11 Basic Elements in the Communication Process Slide 5 of 5 NoiseAny internal or external interference or distraction with the intended message that can cause distortion in the sending and receiving of messages.
12 Categories of Interpersonal Communication Slide 1 of 3 Oral CommunicationAll forms of spoken information; by far the most preferred type of communication used by managers.Written CommunicationLetters, memos, policy manuals, reports, forms, and other documents used to share information in an organization.
13 Categories of Interpersonal Communication Slide 2 of 3 Nonverbal CommunicationAll messages that are nonlanguage responses.Types of Nonverbal CommunicationKinesic behavior, or body motion, such as gestures, facial expressions, and eye behavior.Physical characteristics, such as body shape, physique, posture, height, and weight.Paralanguage, such as voice quality, speech rate, pitch, and laughing.
14 Categories of Interpersonal Communication Slide 3 of 3 Types of Nonverbal CommunicationEnvironment, such as building and room design, furniture and interior decorating, light, noise, and cleanliness.Time, such as being late or early, keeping others waiting, and other relationships between time and status.Proxemics, such as the way people use and perceive space, seating arrangements, and conversational distance.
15 Technological Communication Slide 1 of 2 A broad category of communication components that are rapidly influencing how managers communicate.Types of Technological CommunicationTelecommutingThe practice of working at a remote site by using a computer linked to a central office or other employment location.
16 Technological Communication Slide 2 of 2 Types of Technological Communication (cont.)Electronic mail ( )A computer-based system that allows individuals to exchange and store messages through computerized text-processing and communication networks.Video conferencingAn umbrella term referring to technologies that use live video to unite widely dispersed company operations.
17 Why Managers Communicate Managers communicate for many reasons:To motivateTo informTo controlTo satisfy social needs
18 Barriers to Effective Communications Slide 1 of 3 Cross-Cultural DiversityWhen senders and receivers come from different cultural backgrounds, breakdowns in the communication process are more likely.Ethnocentrism - The tendency to consider one’s own culture and its values as being superior to others.Trust and CredibilityTrust and credibility between the sender and receiver must be established.
19 Barriers to Effective Communications Slide 2 of 3 Information OverloadManagers and organizations can experience information overload when the amount of information that can be processed is exceeded.Language CharacteristicsMany words and phrases in our language are imprecise. Individuals often use different meanings or interpretations of the same word and do not realize it.
20 Barriers to Effective Communications Slide 3 of 3 Gender DifferencesGender differences can result in breakdowns and lead to distorted communication and misunderstandings between men and women.Other FactorsTime pressures may cause us to focus on information that helps us make a choice quickly. Feedback may be impaired or absent.
21 Communication Channels Formal Communication ChannelsFormal communication follows the chain of command and is recognized as official.Direction of FlowOne way to view formal communication within organizations is to examine how it flows - vertically and horizontally.
22 Formal Communication Flows ExternalUpwardHorizontalDownwardExternalExternalExternal
23 Communication Flows Slide 1 of 3 Vertical CommunicationThe flow of information both up and down the chain of command.Downward communicationMessages sent from individuals at higher levels of the organization to those at lower levels.Upward communicationMessages sent up the line from subordinates to managers.
24 Communication Flows Slide 2 of 3 Horizontal CommunicationThe flow of information that occurs both within and between departments.Spontaneous Communication ChannelsOpportunistic and informal communication paths that arise from the social relationships that evolve in the organization.
25 Communication Flows Slide 3 of 3 GrapevineAn informal method of transmitting information depicted as the wandering of messages throughout the organization.
26 Communication Competency Challenges Three Most Important Communication Challenges:Expect to be misunderstood by at least some listeners and readers.Expect to misunderstand others.Strive to reduce the degree of such misunderstandings, but never expect total elimination of them or the ability to anticipate all possible outcomes.
27 Developing Quality Feedback Skills Slide 1 of 3 The process of verifying messages from the sender.Through feedback, communication becomes a dynamic, two-way process, rather than just an event.The emotional impact of feedback varies according to how personally it is focused.
28 Developing Quality Feedback Skills Slide 2 of 3 Principles of Effective FeedbackGive feedback that is specific rather than general.Give feedback when the receiver appears ready to accept it.Focus feedback on behavior rather than the person, and focus it on behavior that can be changed.
29 Developing Quality Feedback Skills Slide 3 of 3 Principles of Effective Feedback (cont.)Provide feedback using descriptive information about what the person said or did.Avoid feedback using evaluative inferences about motives, intent, or feelings.
30 Advanced Listening Skills Slide 1 of 2 Guidelines For Effective ListeningListen for message content.Listen for feelings.Respond to feelings.Be sensitive to both the nonverbal and the verbal content of messages.Reflect back to the sender, in your own words, what you think you are hearing.
31 Advanced Listening Skills Slide 2 of 2 Guidelines for Effective ListeningBe attentive and listen to understand, not to reply.Be patient. Don’t interrupt the speaker. Take time to digest what has been said before responding.
32 Key Points to Consider Slide 1 of 2 You spend most of your time at work communicating.Your success is based on strong communication skills.Communication is becoming increasingly important in view of recent trends, such as increased globalization, diversity, and workplace specialization.
33 Key Points to Consider Slide 2 of 2 Technological communication offers new opportunities to communicate more often and more efficiently than ever before. It is an essential tool for people who want to stay in touch with the rest of the world.