2 Learning ObjectivesDefine Communication, and explain why effective communication is an important management skillDescribe the interpersonal communication processUnderstand the importance and appropriate use of written and oral communicationIdentify the best means of communication as it pertains to specific situationsExplain the most common mechanisms for communication within the organizationUnderstand the challenges of communication in international business activitiesSee Text Page: 55
3 Communication as a Management Skill The act of exchanging informationUsed to inform, command, instruct, assess, influence and persuadeManagers spend three-quarters of their time communicatingSee Learning Objective 1: Define Communication, and explain why effective communication is an important management skillSee text page: 56Communication as a Management SkillCommunication is the act of exchanging information.It can be used to inform, command, instruct, assess, influence, and persuade.Managers use communication every day. In fact, they spend as much as three-quarters of their time communicating. Good managers develop effective communication skills.
4 Communication as a Management Skill Communication is an important skill because managers:Must give directionsMust motivateMust convinceMust absorb ideasMust persuadeSee Learning Objective 1: Define Communication, and explain why effective communication is an important management skillSee text page: 56Communication as a Management SkillCommunicating effectively is an important management skill for several reasons:Managers must give direction to the people who work for them.Managers must be able to motivate people.Managers must be able to convince customers that they should do business with them.Managers must be able to absorb the ideas of others.Managers must be able to persuade other people.4
5 Interpersonal Communication An interactive processTransmit informationSender communicates verbally and nonverballyFactors can interfere and cause process to failSee Learning Objective 2: Describe the interpersonal communication processSee text page: 57Interpersonal CommunicationInterpersonal communication is an interactive process between individuals that involves sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messagesThe basic purpose of interpersonal communication is to transmit information so that the sender of the message is understood and understands the response of the receiverThe sender creates a message and communicates it both verbally and nonverballyMany factors can interfere and cause this process to fail. Some causes of interpersonal communication failure are conflicting assumptions, different interpretations, differences in perception, emotions, and poor listening habits.
6 Conflicting or Inappropriate Assumptions Assuming a receiver understands can create a misunderstandingAlways seek verbal or nonverbal feedbackInterpretation can be a problemEnsure sender and receiver see and understand in the same waySee Learning Objective 2: Describe the interpersonal communication processSee text page: 58Conflicting or Inappropriate AssumptionsIf one assumes that communication is flowing as intended, one tends to move on with the dialogue without allowing feedback to indicate whether clarity of expression and communication has been achieved.Good managers and salespeople always seek verbal and nonverbal feedback before continuing the communication process.Remember the interpretation of meaning can always be a problem when assumptions are involved.Sound communication usually flows from ensuring that the sender and the receiver see and understand assumptions in the same way.
7 Semantics The study of words and symbols There is only meaning in people’s reactionsTwo general types of problemsMultiple interpretationsGroup technical languageMost common form of communicationWords must be carefully chosenSee Learning Objective 2: Describe the interpersonal communication processSee text page: 58SemanticsSemantics is the science or study of the meanings of words and symbols.Words themselves have no real meaning. They have meaning only in terms of people’s reactions to them.The problems involved in semantics are of two general types.Some words and phrases invite multiple interpretations.Another problem is that groups of people in specific situations often develop their own technical language, which outsiders may or may not understand.Words are the most common form of interpersonal communication.Because of the real possibility of misinterpretation, words must be carefully chosen and clearly defined for effective communication.
8 Perception and Emotions Mental and sensory processesPerception is uniqueStimulusSense organs respondPeople tend to listen to only part of the messageEmotionsEmotions effect the communication processSetting is importantGood communication is emotional and physicalSee Learning Objective 2: Describe the interpersonal communication processSee text page: 59-60PerceptionPerception deals with the mental and sensory processes an individual uses in interpreting information she or he receives.Since each individual’s perception is unique, people often perceive the same situation in different ways.Perception begins when the sense organs receive a stimulus. The stimulus is the information received.The sense organs respond to, shape, and organize the information received.Different people perceive the same information differently because no two people have the same personal experiences, memories, likes, and dislikes.People tend to listen to only part of the message, blocking out the rest for any number of reasons.Emotions either Preceding or during CommunicationAnger, joy, fear, sorrow, disgust, or panic can all affect the way we send or receive messages.The setting for the communication piece is obviously important.Managers with good communication skills strive to manage the emotional as well as the physical communication environment.
9 Learning to Communicate Communicate in writing and verballyUnderstanding the AudienceDetermine the audienceAnswer the following questions about the audienceWhat does the audience already know?Want to know?What is its capacity for absorbing information?What does it hope to gain?Friendly or hostile?See Learning Objective 2: Describe the interpersonal communication processSee text page: 60-61Learning to CommunicateManagers communicate in writing and verbally. Before they can master either form of communication, they must be able to identify the audience, develop good listening skills, and understand the importance of feedback and nonverbal communication.Understanding the AudienceManagers need to determine their audience.Specifically, they need to be able to answer the following questions:What does the audience already know?What does it want to know/What is its capacity for absorbing information?What does it hope to gain by listening? Is it hoping to be motivated? Informed? Convinced?Is the audience friendly or hostile?
10 Developing Good Listening Skills Good skills = absorbed informationLearn to listen activelyMost people do not listen activelyLearning involves the following:Identify purposeIdentify ideaNote tone and body languageRespondSee Learning Objective 2: Describe the interpersonal communication processSee text page: 61-62Developing Good Listening SkillsGood listening skills enable managers to absorb the information they need, recognize problems, and understand other peoples viewpoints.Managers need to learn to listen actively. Active listening involves absorbing what another person is saying and responding to the person’s concerns.Most people do not listen actively.Learning to listen actively involves the following steps:Identify the speaker’s purpose.Identify the speaker’s main ideas.Note the speaker’s tone as well as his or her body language.Respond to the speaker with appropriate comments, questions, and body language
11 Feedback Effective communication is a two way process Feedback – Flow from receiver to senderUnderstanding the Importance of Nonverbal CommunicationParalanguageGesturesBody posture and eye contactNonverbal communication can change the meaning of verbal communicationSee Learning Objective 2: Describe the interpersonal communication processSee text page: 62-63FeedbackEffective communication is a two-way process. Information must flow back and forth between sender and receiver.The flow from the receiver to the sender is called feedback.Understanding the Importance of Nonverbal CommunicationOne form of nonverbal communication is called paralanguage, which includes the pitch, tempo, loudness, and hesitations in the verbal communication.People also use a variety of gestures in nonverbal communication.People communicate nonverbally by how close they stand to each other. Body posture and eye contact also communicate messages.Nonverbal communication is an important supplement to verbal communication and sometimes can even change the meaning of the verbal communication.
12 Written Communication Think about what needs to be achievedIdentify purpose, audience, and main point to conveyPrinciples of Good WritingThree basic principles:Write simplyAppropriate content and toneProofreadSee Learning Objective 3: Understand the importance and appropriate use of written and oral communicationSee text page: 63-64Written CommunicationTo communicate effectively, managers must be able to write clearly, concisely, and persuasively. Managers need to think about what they want to achieve.They must identify the purpose of the document, the audience, and the main point they want to convey.Principles of Good WritingTo improve their writing, managers can apply three basic principles:Write as simply and clearly as possibleBe sure that the content and tone of the document are appropriate for the audienceProofread the document
13 Oral Communication The Importance of Oral Communication Most business communication is done orallyFormal and informal oral communicationThe Importance of Oral CommunicationCommunicate effectivelySet toneDeveloping Oral Communication6 rules of thumbSee Learning Objective 3: Understand the importance and appropriate use of written and oral communicationSee text page: 64-65Oral CommunicationMost business communication is done orally.Some oral communication is formal and takes place during meetings or interviews. Most oral communication is informal. It takes place in offices and hallways.The Importance of Oral CommunicationSuccessful managers use their oral communication skills to give clear instructions, motivate their staff, and persuade other people.Being able to communicate effectively also is important because it can set the tone within a department or company.Developing Oral CommunicationAll businesspeople need to be able to speak effectively.They need to follow some rules of thumb:Make emotional contact with listeners by addressing them by name where possible.Avoid speaking in monotone.Be enthusiastic and project a positive outlook.Avoid interrupting others.Always be courteous.Avoid empty sounds or words, such as “uh,” “um,” “like,” and “you know.”
14 Choosing the Best Method of Communication Managers should master both written and verbalUnderstand when to use each kind of skillVerbalWrittenSee Learning Objective 4: Identify the best means of communication as it pertains to specific situationsSee text page: 65-66Choosing the Best Method of CommunicationManagers need to master both written and verbal communication skills.They also need to understand when to use each kind of skill.Verbal communication is most appropriate for sensitive communications, such as reprimanding or dismissing an employee.Written communication is most appropriate for communicating routine information, such as changes in company policies or staff.
15 Communicating within the Organization The GrapevineInformal channels within the organizationOften accurateWill always existHigh-speed exchangeAdvantagesSee Learning Objective 5: Explain the most common mechanisms for communication within the organizationSee text page: 66-67The GrapevineInformal channels of communication in an organization are generally referred to as the grapevine. Grapevines develop within organizations when employees share common hobbies, hometowns, lunch breaks, family ties, and social relationships.The does not follow organizational hierarchy and is often accurate. Information in the grapevine travels more rapidly than information in the formal channels of communication.Grapevine will always exist and management should use it to complement formal channels of communication.Especially valuable to communication in today’s organizations is the used of electronic mail systems, or , which provide for high-speed exchange of written messages.The advantages of are:Saves timeEliminates wasted effortProvides written records of communications without the formality of memosEnables communication among individuals who might not communicate otherwise
16 The Internet Intranets Public Interconnected computers Information superhighwayMassive amounts of informationIntranetsPrivate“Information Hub”See Learning Objective 5: Explain the most common mechanisms for communication within the organizationSee text page: 67-68The InternetThe Internet is a global collection of independently operating but interconnected computers.Frequently referred to as the information superhighway, the Internet is actually a collection of computer networks.The real value of the Internet to managers is the information that it makes available. Through the Internet, managers can access massive amounts of information by accessing computers around the world.The IntranetAn intranet is a private, corporate computer network that uses Internet products and technologies to provide multimedia applications within organizations.An intranet connects people to people and people to information and knowledge within the organization; it serves as an “information hub” for the entire organization.
17 Communication in International Business Activities More complicatedDifferent languagesLeading international languageCultural differencesNo simple answersTwo things a manager should do:Learn the cultureWrite and speak clearlySee Learning Objective 6: Understand the challenges of communication in international business activitiesSee text page: 69Communication in International Business ActivitiesCommunication in international business activities becomes more complicated during the verbal and nonverbal communication processes.In verbal communication, the obvious problem of dealing with different languages exists. More than 3,000 languages are spoken, and about 100 of those are official languages of different nations.English is the leading international language, and its leadership continues to grow.The nonverbal communication process is even more complicated because cultural differences play a significant role in nonverbal communication.There are no simple answers to the problems of communicating in international business activities.However, there are two things a manager should do:Learn the cultures of the people with whom he or she communicatesWrite and speak clearly and simply