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The Communication Process Chapter 3. Administrative Office Managers… Spend more time engaged in communicating than in any other activity. Spend more time.

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Presentation on theme: "The Communication Process Chapter 3. Administrative Office Managers… Spend more time engaged in communicating than in any other activity. Spend more time."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Communication Process Chapter 3

2 Administrative Office Managers… Spend more time engaged in communicating than in any other activity. Spend more time engaged in communicating than in any other activity.

3 Variables Affecting the Communication Process   Nature of the message   Background of sender   Background of receiver   Relationship between sender and receiver   Time of day   Unusual circumstances of those communicating

4 Encoding Is a process that involves translating the thoughts or information into words, signs, or symbols. Decoding Occurs when the receiver interprets the message and gives it meaning from his or her own perspective.

5 Communication Flows Upward Superiors Downward Subordinates Horizontally (Laterally) Other Managers

6 Downward Communication Is used by administrative office managers to 1. Keep their subordinates informed. 2. Give them job-related instructions. 3. Provide subordinates with feedback regarding their job performance.

7 Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate Downward Medium Permanency of record Permanency of record  If written record required, use written or electronic communication Immediacy Immediacy  Oral or electronic Need for evidence of understanding or feedback Need for evidence of understanding or feedback  Oral—face to face or telephone Formality Formality  Written

8 Keep Employees Informed Small-group meetings Manuals s Memorandums

9 Factors That Affect the Success of Downward Communication 1. Appropriateness of communication channel 2. Timing and clarity of the message 3. Attitudes of those involved in the communication process

10 Other Downward Media Bulletin boards Bulletin boards Pamphlets Pamphlets Conferences Interviews Grapevine Public Address Speech Annual reports Posters

11 Upward Communication Is used by employees to convey to their supervisors their feelings, ideas, aspirations, and attitudes

12 Examples of Upward Communication Information about one’s job Information about one’s job Work-related problems Work-related problems Organizational policies and procedures Organizational policies and procedures Suggestions for improving existing practices Suggestions for improving existing practices

13 Variables That Affect the Success of Upward Communication   The nature of the relationship between the subordinate and the manager.   The quality of the subordinate’s presentation of the message.   The extent to which the content of the message is positive or negative.   The timeliness of the message.   The extent to which the substance of the message is useful.

14 Methods Designed to Encourage Upward Communication Social gatherings Social gatherings Publications (newsletters) Publications (newsletters) Meetings Meetings Performance appraisals Performance appraisals Attitude surveys Attitude surveys Suggestion systems Suggestion systems “True” open-door policy “True” open-door policy

15 Horizontal Communication Takes place between individuals of equal hierarchical rank and is more informal than either downward or upward communication

16 Functions of Horizontal Communication   It helps employees fulfill their socialization needs.   It helps employees and departments coordinate their activities with one another.   It helps others better understand individual and departmental responsibilities.   It helps individuals solve their own problems before others have to become involved.

17 The Grapevine   Is a type of informal communication   It is often a fast and surprisingly accurate communication process.   Management sometimes uses the grapevine to assess employee reaction to a proposed change.

18 Small-group Communication Three hierarchical levels of administrative office managers  Highest ranking  Equal rank  Outranked by one or more members

19 Nonverbal Communication Expressed by Time Body Language Proxemics Para- language

20 Paralanguage Involves Speaking range Speaking range Intrusions Intrusions Speaking rate Speaking rate Pitch Pitch Pauses Pauses Volume Volume

21 Barriers to Effective Communication   Taking things or people for granted.   Incorrect assumptions regarding subordinate interest.   Characteristics of upward, downward, and horizontal communication.   Semantics (word meanings).   Perception of something.

22 Listening…. Is the weakest communication skill of many administrative office managers. Is the weakest communication skill of many administrative office managers.

23 Elements of the Listening Process Internal Elements The listener has to be able to hear the message. The listener has to be able to attach proper meaning to the words in the message.

24 Elements of the Listening Process Contextual Elements Are concerned with the environment in which communication occurs. Are affected by noise, time constraints, accessibility of sender and receiver to each other and to the communication channel being used.

25 Elements of the Listening Process Relationship Elements A cordial relationship enhances the listening process.

26 Improve Listening Concentrate on what is being said Concentrate on what is being said Avoid doodling while interacting with others Avoid doodling while interacting with others Accept senders for whom they are Accept senders for whom they are Avoid “tuning out” senders Avoid “tuning out” senders Learn to “listen” to the nonverbal component of a message with your eyes Learn to “listen” to the nonverbal component of a message with your eyes

27 Improve Listening Keep listening speed consistent with sender’s conversation rate Keep listening speed consistent with sender’s conversation rate Seek clarification if necessary Seek clarification if necessary Listen more objectively Listen more objectively Listen as intently to unimportant messages as to important ones Listen as intently to unimportant messages as to important ones Avoid “listening between the lines” Avoid “listening between the lines”

28 Decision Making One of the most important responsibilities of administrative office managers. One of the most important responsibilities of administrative office managers.

29 Steps in the Decision-Making Process Defining and limiting the problem (or situation). Defining and limiting the problem (or situation). Analyzing the problem (or situation). Analyzing the problem (or situation). Defining criteria to be used in evaluating various solutions. Defining criteria to be used in evaluating various solutions. Gathering the data/information. Gathering the data/information. Identifying and evaluating possible solutions. Identifying and evaluating possible solutions. Selecting the best solution. Selecting the best solution. Implementing the solution. Implementing the solution.

30 Nominal Grouping Technique Listing Recording Voting Discussing Final Voting

31 Sources of Conflict Limited resources that must be shared. Limited resources that must be shared. Incompatibility of goals. Incompatibility of goals. Organizational reward systems thought to treat some unfairly. Organizational reward systems thought to treat some unfairly. Changes in the organizational environment. Changes in the organizational environment.

32 Factors to Consider for Conflict Resolution Strategy Background of the conflict situation. Background of the conflict situation. Background of those involved in the conflict. Background of those involved in the conflict. Relationship between conflicting parties. Relationship between conflicting parties. Benefits to be derived from resolving conflict. Benefits to be derived from resolving conflict.

33 Types of Change Confronting Administrative Office Managers Planned Change Is proactive Is a result of careful planning, developing, and implementing Reactive Change Is forced change Is a result of events that make change necessary

34 Steps Involved in Implementing Change   Recognize the need for change.   Plan the change.   Recommend a plan.   Decide about the plan   Implement the plan.

35 THE END


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