2Administrative Office Managers… Spend more time engaged in communicating than in any other activity.
3Variables Affecting the Communication Process Nature of the messageBackground of senderBackground of receiverRelationship between senderand receiverTime of dayUnusual circumstances of those communicating
4Is a process that involves translating the thoughts or information into words, signs, or symbols. EncodingOccurs when the receiver interprets the message and gives it meaning from his or her own perspective.Decoding
5Communication Flows Horizontally (Laterally) Other Managers Upward SuperiorsDownwardSubordinates
6Downward Communication Is used by administrative office managers to1. Keep their subordinates informed.2. Give them job-related instructions.3. Provide subordinates with feedbackregarding their job performance.
7Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate Downward Medium Permanency of recordIf written record required, use written or electronic communicationImmediacyOral or electronicNeed for evidence of understanding or feedbackOral—face to face or telephoneFormalityWritten
11Upward CommunicationIs used by employees to convey to their supervisorstheir feelings, ideas, aspirations, and attitudes
12Examples of Upward Communication Information about one’s jobWork-related problemsOrganizational policies and proceduresSuggestions for improving existing practices
13Variables That Affect the Success of Upward Communication The nature of the relationship between the subordinate and the manager.The quality of the subordinate’s presentation of the message.The extent to which the content of the message is positive or negative.The timeliness of the message.The extent to which the substance of the message is useful.
14Methods Designed to Encourage Upward Communication Social gatheringsPublications (newsletters)MeetingsPerformance appraisalsAttitude surveysSuggestion systems“True” open-door policy
15Horizontal Communication Takes place between individuals of equal hierarchical rank and is more informal than either downward or upward communication
16Functions of Horizontal Communication It helps employees fulfill their socializationneeds.It helps employees and departments coordinate their activities with one another.It helps others better understand individual and departmental responsibilities.It helps individuals solve their own problems before others have to become involved.
17The Grapevine Is a type of informal communication It is often a fast and surprisingly accurate communication process.Management sometimes uses the grapevine to assess employee reaction to a proposed change.
18Small-group Communication Three hierarchical levels of administrative office managersHighest rankingEqual rankOutranked by one or more members
19Nonverbal Communication Expressed byBodyLanguagePara-languageTimeProxemics
21Barriers to Effective Communication Taking things or people for granted.Incorrect assumptions regarding subordinate interest.Characteristics of upward, downward, and horizontal communication.Semantics (word meanings).Perception of something.
22Listening….Is the weakest communication skill of many administrative office managers.
23Elements of the Listening Process InternalElementsThe listener has to be able to hear the message.The listener has to be able to attach proper meaning to the words in the message.
24Elements of the Listening Process Are concerned with theenvironment in whichcommunication occurs.ContextualElementsAre affected by noise, timeconstraints, accessibility ofsender and receiver to each otherand to the communication channel being used.
25Elements of the Listening Process RelationshipElementsA cordial relationshipenhances the listening process.
26Improve Listening Concentrate on what is being said Avoid doodling while interacting with othersAccept senders for whom they areAvoid “tuning out” sendersLearn to “listen” to the nonverbal component of a message with your eyes
27Improve ListeningKeep listening speed consistent with sender’s conversation rateSeek clarification if necessaryListen more objectivelyListen as intently to unimportant messages as to important onesAvoid “listening between the lines”
28Decision MakingOne of the most important responsibilities of administrative office managers.
29Steps in the Decision-Making Process Defining and limiting the problem (or situation).Analyzing the problem (or situation).Defining criteria to be used in evaluating various solutions.Gathering the data/information.Identifying and evaluating possible solutions.Selecting the best solution.Implementing the solution.
31Sources of Conflict Limited resources that must be shared. Incompatibility of goals.Organizational reward systems thought to treat some unfairly.Changes in the organizational environment.
32Factors to Consider for Conflict Resolution Strategy Background of the conflict situation.Background of those involved in the conflict.Relationship between conflicting parties.Benefits to be derived from resolving conflict.
33Types of Change Confronting Administrative Office Managers Is proactivePlanned ChangeIs a result of careful planning, developing, and implementingIs forced changeReactive ChangeIs a result of events that make change necessary
34Steps Involved in Implementing Change Recognize the need for change.Plan the change.Recommend a plan.Decide about the planImplement the plan.