2 Administrative Office Managers… Spend more time engaged in communicating than in any other activity.
3 Variables Affecting the Communication Process Nature of the messageBackground of senderBackground of receiverRelationship between senderand receiverTime of dayUnusual circumstances of those communicating
4 Is a process that involves translating the thoughts or information into words, signs, or symbols. EncodingOccurs when the receiver interprets the message and gives it meaning from his or her own perspective.Decoding
5 Communication Flows Horizontally (Laterally) Other Managers Upward SuperiorsDownwardSubordinates
6 Downward Communication Is used by administrative office managers to1. Keep their subordinates informed.2. Give them job-related instructions.3. Provide subordinates with feedbackregarding their job performance.
7 Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate Downward Medium Permanency of recordIf written record required, use written or electronic communicationImmediacyOral or electronicNeed for evidence of understanding or feedbackOral—face to face or telephoneFormalityWritten
9 Factors That Affect the Success of Downward Communication 1. Appropriateness of communication channel2. Timing and clarity of the message3. Attitudes of those involved in the communicationprocess
10 Other Downward Media Bulletin boards Pamphlets Conferences Interviews GrapevinePublic AddressSpeechAnnual reportsPosters
11 Upward CommunicationIs used by employees to convey to their supervisorstheir feelings, ideas, aspirations, and attitudes
12 Examples of Upward Communication Information about one’s jobWork-related problemsOrganizational policies and proceduresSuggestions for improving existing practices
13 Variables That Affect the Success of Upward Communication The nature of the relationship between the subordinate and the manager.The quality of the subordinate’s presentation of the message.The extent to which the content of the message is positive or negative.The timeliness of the message.The extent to which the substance of the message is useful.
14 Methods Designed to Encourage Upward Communication Social gatheringsPublications (newsletters)MeetingsPerformance appraisalsAttitude surveysSuggestion systems“True” open-door policy
15 Horizontal Communication Takes place between individuals of equal hierarchical rank and is more informal than either downward or upward communication
16 Functions of Horizontal Communication It helps employees fulfill their socializationneeds.It helps employees and departments coordinate their activities with one another.It helps others better understand individual and departmental responsibilities.It helps individuals solve their own problems before others have to become involved.
17 The Grapevine Is a type of informal communication It is often a fast and surprisingly accurate communication process.Management sometimes uses the grapevine to assess employee reaction to a proposed change.
18 Small-group Communication Three hierarchical levels of administrative office managersHighest rankingEqual rankOutranked by one or more members
19 Nonverbal Communication Expressed byBodyLanguagePara-languageTimeProxemics
21 Barriers to Effective Communication Taking things or people for granted.Incorrect assumptions regarding subordinate interest.Characteristics of upward, downward, and horizontal communication.Semantics (word meanings).Perception of something.
22 Listening….Is the weakest communication skill of many administrative office managers.
23 Elements of the Listening Process InternalElementsThe listener has to be able to hear the message.The listener has to be able to attach proper meaning to the words in the message.
24 Elements of the Listening Process Are concerned with theenvironment in whichcommunication occurs.ContextualElementsAre affected by noise, timeconstraints, accessibility ofsender and receiver to each otherand to the communication channel being used.
25 Elements of the Listening Process RelationshipElementsA cordial relationshipenhances the listening process.
26 Improve Listening Concentrate on what is being said Avoid doodling while interacting with othersAccept senders for whom they areAvoid “tuning out” sendersLearn to “listen” to the nonverbal component of a message with your eyes
27 Improve ListeningKeep listening speed consistent with sender’s conversation rateSeek clarification if necessaryListen more objectivelyListen as intently to unimportant messages as to important onesAvoid “listening between the lines”
28 Decision MakingOne of the most important responsibilities of administrative office managers.
29 Steps in the Decision-Making Process Defining and limiting the problem (or situation).Analyzing the problem (or situation).Defining criteria to be used in evaluating various solutions.Gathering the data/information.Identifying and evaluating possible solutions.Selecting the best solution.Implementing the solution.
31 Sources of Conflict Limited resources that must be shared. Incompatibility of goals.Organizational reward systems thought to treat some unfairly.Changes in the organizational environment.
32 Factors to Consider for Conflict Resolution Strategy Background of the conflict situation.Background of those involved in the conflict.Relationship between conflicting parties.Benefits to be derived from resolving conflict.
33 Types of Change Confronting Administrative Office Managers Is proactivePlanned ChangeIs a result of careful planning, developing, and implementingIs forced changeReactive ChangeIs a result of events that make change necessary
34 Steps Involved in Implementing Change Recognize the need for change.Plan the change.Recommend a plan.Decide about the planImplement the plan.