2CommunicationCommunication: transmitting a message with the expectation of some kind of response. This can be interpersonal or intrapersonal.Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. Exchange requires feedback.
3communication dimensions Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions:Content (what type of things are communicated)Source/Emisor/Sender/Encoder (by whom)Form (in which form)Channel (through which medium)Destination/Receiver/Target/Decoder (to whom)Purpose/Pragmatic aspect
4The Communication Process Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or feelings.Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.Decoding: lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand.
5Organizational Communication Objectives An open communication climate.Accurate information.Competition and cooperation rather than conflict.
6The “Chain” Communication Structure The “Circle” Communication Structure
7CriteriaChainWheelAll channelSpeedModerateFastAccuracyHighEmergence of a leaderNoneMember satisfactionLow
8Communication system Downward Communication. Upward Communication. Lateral Communication.Diagonal Communication.Grapevine Communication.
9Downward Communication. Downward communication : Formal communication consists of messages sent from superiors to subordinates.1. Instructions or directions concerning job-performance.2. Information about organizational procedures and policies3. Feedback to the subordinates concerning job performance4. Information to assist in of work tasks.Low employee satisfactionDownward communication is limited.
10Downward communication must accomplish the following: Demonstrate empathy .Be accurateBe definite.Consider selective perception.Provide for feedbackAvoid message overload
11Upward communication.Upward communication : the flow of messages from the lower levels of the organization to the upper levels.It most consists of information such as feedback of lower-level operations (reports of production).Upward is important work-related decisions.Upward communication involves complaints and suggestions for improvement .High employees satisfaction
12Successful upward communication requires the following: Frequent face-to-face contactRecognition of and rewards for accomplishmentThe ability to listenAction.
13Lateral communication Lateral communication This is the flow of communication between people who are on the same level in an organization.It requires co-workers co-ordination to accomplish a goal.Lateral communication can also occur between two or more departments in an organization.Lateral communication helps develop interpersonal relationships.
14Lateral communication Lateral communication has three formal functions:Coordination.Problem solving.Conflict resolutionLateral communication tends to be faster, more accurate, and less threatening than vertical communication.
15Diagonal communication It occurs between individual or departments that are not in the same level of the hierarchy.informal
16The grapevine Informal Rapid and fast Grapevine has three main characteristics.it is not controlled by management.it is perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal channel issued by top management.it is largely used to serve the self-interests of the people within it.
17Barriers to Communication Culture, background, and biasNoiseOurselvesPerceptionMessageEnvironmentSmotheringStressGender differences
18Barriers to Communication Culture, background, and bias - We allow our past experiences to change the meaning of the message. Our culture, background, and bias can be good as they allow us use our past experiences to understand something new, it is when they change the meaning of the message then they interfere with the communication process.
19Noise - Equipment or environmental noise impede clear communication Noise - Equipment or environmental noise impede clear communication. The sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other.
20Ourselves - Focusing on ourselves, rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict. The "Me Generation" is out when it comes to effective communication. Some of the factors that cause this are defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us), superiority (we feel we know more that the other), and ego (we feel we are the center of the activity).
21Perception - If we feel the person is talking too fast, not fluently, does not articulate clearly, etc., we may dismiss the person. Also our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen. We listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss those of low status.
22Message - Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea. Our educational institutions reinforce this with tests and questions. Semantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer. For example, the word chairman instead of chairperson, may cause you to focus on the word and not the message.
23Environmental - Bright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or any other stimulus provides a potential distraction.
24Smothering - We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. Not true! Too often we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are already aware of the facts.Stress - People do not see things the same way when under stress. What we see and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of references - our beliefs, values, knowledge, experiences, and goals.
25AssertivenessAssertive style of behavior is to interact with people while standing up for your rightsAssertive people: Assertive people have the following characteristicsThey feel free to express their feelings.They know their rights.They have control over their anger.