Presentation on theme: "World war ii… …the biggest powerpoint ever"— Presentation transcript:
1World war ii… …the biggest powerpoint ever World HistoryWorld war ii… …the biggest powerpoint ever
2Fascism Rises in Europe In response to political turmoil and economic crises, Italy and Germany turn to totalitarian dictators.
3Fascism Rises• Fascism is a new, militant political movement• Extreme nationalism and loyalty to authoritarian leader• Italians want a leader who will take action• Fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, promises to rescue Italy• Italian king puts Mussolini in charge
4Fascism Rises • Adolf Hitler—obscure political figure in 1920s Germany • Nazism—German brand of fascism1923 BEER HALL PUTSCHHitler tries—but FAILS—to seize power from the democratically elected, but troubled, Weimar GovernmentMEIN KAMPF (My Struggle) : written in jail, Hitler’s book outlines his plan for a Nazi Germany
6MEIN KAMPF Superiority of German (Aryan) race; all others inferior Jews were the reason for all of Germany’s problems (also Communists)Treaty of Versailles must be overturnedLebensraum: Germany needed “Living Space” for its people; room to EXPAND
7MEIN KAMPF5. FURHER Principal: One leader should have supreme power and rule Results: Bad economic conditions get Nazi Party elected in growing #’s 1933 Ger. President appoints Hitler Chancellor Burning of Reichstag gives Nazis majority in elections
8Postwar Europe Unstable New Democracies German Inflation American Great Depression has worldwide impactWorldwide Unemployment
9(don’t write this down) Children using bundles of German marks as blocks During and after WWI, Germany just printed more money to pay for the war and reparations. This lead to severe inflation.In 1923, a loaf of bread cost 200 billion marks!
11Comparing Fascism to Communism Ruled by:STRICT GOV’TDICTATORPolitical PartiesONEIndividual RightsDeniedSocietal ClassesNone!(A classless society)ManyAristocratsIndustrialistMilitaryLower middle classWorkersWorld ViewInternationalism-unite workers world-wideNational issues take precedence
12Analyze and Connect:The 17th century was a period of great upheaval in Europe. The decline of feudalism, constant religious and territorial conflicts, and rebellions of overtaxed peasants led monarchs to seek absolute power.*What political and social crises led to the rise of fascism in the 1920s and 1930s?
13Answer: Lack of Democratic tradition: Weimar Government weak Loss of population, houses, factories, farms, schools, hospitals, etc.Loss of “next generation” keeps “old ideas” in powerInflationTrade decreasesPersonal and Social Anxiety
14Analyze and Connect:2. Rulers can increase their power by limiting the power of other institutions. Absolute monarchs of the 1600’s increased their power by limiting the power of the nobility, controlling the Church, creating royal bureaucracies & taking personal control of the central government. How did Fascist leaders increase their own power?
15Answer Majority control of GOV’T. Allow only 1 PARTY Change Laws: target Jews, newspapers, teachers, political oppositionUse of Terror: Assassinations, Prison camps, ThreatsSecret Police: SS, GestapoWeakened Cath/Prot. ChurchPropaganda: massively used
16Analyze and Connect:3. Absolute monarchs sought to control economic affairs by giving tax benefits to expand trade and manufacturing and by creating new bureaucracies to control economic life. How did Fascist leaders take command of their countries’ economies?
17Answer: Took over labor unions and outlawed strikes Almost no unemployment: public works, ramped up military, opposition = no jobsNazis closely regulated private industryState control of prices, production, capital investments, trade, banking
18Analyze and Connect:4. In an effort to control every aspect of society and the lives of citizens, absolute monarchs regulated religious worship, social gatherings, and other aspects of daily life. What steps did Fascist leaders take to control the lives of their citizens?
19Answer Controlled education Youth groups Censorship German women pushed into inferior positionControlled assembly, speech, marriage, occupations, etc.
20Analyze and Connect:5. Absolute monarchs believed that the divine right of kings gave them authority to rule with unlimited power. What beliefs or principles did Fascist leaders use to justify their unlimited power?
22Aggressors Invade Nations Germany, Italy, and Japan conquer other countries; the rest of the world does nothing to stop them.
23Aggressors March ( )Japan invades Manchuria (NE China), later takes major cities like Beijing.Chinese Nationalists and Communists fight back (remember…?)Mussolini (Italy) takes EthiopiaHitler (Ger) takes Rhineland (border land between FR and GER)
27Taking SidesBritain and France follow appeasement, a policy of giving in to aggression to keep peace elsewhereGermany, Italy, and Japan—the Axis Powers— form an allianceUnited States follows an isolationist policy (political ties with other countries should be avoided)
28Axis AggressionHitler takes Sudetenland (Czech-Ger border), and later rest of CzechoslovakiaGB and FR give in; think Hitler will be satisfied• Mussolini takes Albania; Hitler demands part of PolandGB and FR continue appeasement• Nazis and Soviets secretly sign Nonaggression PactStalin and Hitler pledge never to attack one another
30War!Germany uses blitzkrieg, a new military strategy using airplanes, tanks, and MASSIVE infantry forces to SURPRISE and OVERWHELM the enemy.Takes west Poland, Denmark, Norway (http://youtu.be/n_tVtW6q9S0)Stalin expands the USSRTakes Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and eventually Finland
31France Falls May 1940, Germany moved quickly into Belgium and France Cornered Allied BR troops (had to be rescued by boat)Captured Paris by June 14FR surrenders a week laterGER controls northern FR, sets up a “puppet gov’t” in Vichy for southern FRCharles de Gaulle, FR general, leads the resistance from exile in London
33Battle of BritainGerman air force (Luftwaffe) bombarded British cities, especially LondonRAF (Royal Air Force) fights backThey have radar and a German decoders!Germany switches to night raidsGermany eventually backs out of EnglandConsidered a British victory!
37Italy and BR armies compete for oil-rich land Other fronts…AfricaItaly and BR armies compete for oil-rich landFights go back and forth for years; GER has advantageEastern EuropeHitler attacks and controls BalkansSURPRISE! In June 1941, Hitler invades the Soviet UnionSoviet troops retreat!GER wants Leningrad and Moscow—spends 2 winters trying…
38Pacific FrontAmerica stays isolationist until early 1941— then sells arms to the AlliesDecember 7, 1941—Japan attacks the American naval base at Pearl HarborSignificant damage and loss of lifeAmerica declares war on Japan and its alliesJapan attacks other BR and AM colonies at the same time or soon afterGuam, Hong Kong, Philippines
40Japanese culture: shameful to surrender. “East Asia for the Asiatics” not a term to be used now—used in the 1940’s to generally mean people from AsiaJapan wants to convince the 150 million people they conquered that Asia should be ruled by other Asians, NOT COLONIALISTSTakes control of over 1 million square miles of landOften treats prisoners with extreme crueltyJapanese culture: shameful to surrender.
41Prisoner of War“…They took me outside and I was forced to watch as they buried six of my Scouts alive. They made the men dig their own graves, and then had them kneel down in a pit. The guards hit them over the head with shovels to stun them and piled earth on top.”
42Allies Fight Back by Sea Beginning: Doolittle Raid on TokyoNot too damaging, but inspiring to Americans!Upsetting to dominant Japanese!High point: Battle of MidwayAM code breakers know where Japan is headed. US Navy waits to attack at JUST the right time. It works!Savvy move: Island hoppingAM and AUS forces target important islands instead of fighting for every single oneWant go get closer to Japan
43Battle of Guadalcanal (Japan-controlled Pacific Island that AM and AUS forces attacked) “Hell was red furry spiders as big as your fist,…enormous rats and bats everywhere, and rivers with waiting crocodiles. Hell was the sour, foul smell of the squishy jungle, humidity that rotted a body within hours…Hell was an enemy…so fanatic that it used its own dead as booby traps.”
44Holocaust A mass genocide of races Hitler considered inferior Jews were targeted at the greatest rate (remember Mein Kampf)Roma, disabled, homosexuals, incurably ill, and others were also targetedHitler called it the Final Solutionover six million killed, most in concentration camps
45Turning Points North Africa Stalingrad Germans in control after earlier victoriesAllies send in two different forces (planned by Dwight D. Eisenhower) to trap the GermansGER forces in Africa defeated in May 1943Major industrial city in the Caucus Mtns area of USSRHitler wanted total controlBoth leaders (Hitler and Stalin) refuse to back downEnormous loss of life on both sides (over 1 million Soviets!)Begins Aug 1942, GER surrenders in Feb 1943
46D-Day InvasionAllies invade at Normandy in Northern France on June 6, 1944Largest land and sea attack in historyAllies take heavy losses but push onOver one million troops land in one monthBy September, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg are liberated
48End of War in EuropeBattle of the Bulge—December 1944—Germans break through weak American lines but are eventually forced to retreatApril 1945—Allies invade Germany from East (Soviets) and West (AM, BR, others). Surround Berlin.April 1945—Hitler and his new wife take their own livesApril and May 1945—Concentration camps are liberated (http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/the-holocaust/videos/concentration-camp-liberation)May 7, 1945—General Eisenhower accepts the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich. Victory in Europe!
49Victory in the PacificGuadalcanal had stopped any other Japanese advances; now retreatingBattle of Leyte Gulf—October 1944—Allies take back the Philippines and destroy the Japanese naval fleetMore successful (but bloody) island hoppingIwo Jima, Okinawa, others. Thousands die.
50Japanese Surrender Possible invasion Atomic Bombs Could cost half a million Allied lives or moreCould take 1-2 yearsAtomic Bombsfirst tested July 16, Japan was warned.August 6, atomic bomb dropped on HiroshimaAugust 9, bomb dropped on NagasakiOver 140,000 killed immediately, more of radiationSeptember 2, 1945—Japan surrenders
51Hiroshima readingIn your opinion, did the American generals and the President make the right decision?Think about those who were affected (use the reading!) and those who may have been affected if a different decision was made.
52GOAL: Avoid future wars! Post-War ChangesCities and farms ruinedGovernments struggleNuremberg Trials—Nazi leaders were charged with crimes. Many were sentenced to prison time or death.Japan was demilitarized—disbanded the armyCould fight only if attackedJapan became a constitutional monarchyConstitution written mostly by Americans