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Aviation Security Aboard Commercial Aircraft Becky Neal Beth Schuetz Brad Steinfeldt Andrzej Stewart.

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Presentation on theme: "Aviation Security Aboard Commercial Aircraft Becky Neal Beth Schuetz Brad Steinfeldt Andrzej Stewart."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aviation Security Aboard Commercial Aircraft Becky Neal Beth Schuetz Brad Steinfeldt Andrzej Stewart

2 Agenda Introduction Background Legislation Disadvantages Alternatives Recommendations

3 Introduction Federal Aviation Act of 1958 proved inadequate to growing security threats. Antihijacking Act and Air Transportation Act of 1974. No U.S. based airlines suffered hijackings from 1991 through 2000 Bureau of Transportation Statistics

4 Consequences of Sept. 11 September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks bring down four commercial airliners into selected target buildings. Homeland Security Act of 2002 Arming Pilots Against Terrorism Act of 2002

5 Goals Investigate the Federal Flight Deck Officer Program Provide evidence of problems with the program Propose alternative security solutions

6 Background Legislation

7 Disclaimer

8 Sources Code of Federal Regulations United States Code House Resolutions Senate Bills

9 Legal Basis for Arming Pilots 14 CFR 121.538 49 CFR 1544.201 49 CFR 1544.219 49 USC 44921

10 14 CFR 121.538 Title 14 – Federal Aviation Regulations Part 121 – Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Operations Rules dictated by 49 CFR Chapter XII

11 49 CFR 1544.201d Prohibitions on Carrying a Weapon, Explosive, or Incendiary Lists exceptions

12 49 CFR 1544.219 Carriage of Accessible Weapons Federal law enforcement officers

13 49 USC 44921 Federal Flight Deck Officer Program 107 th Cong. HR 5005, Title XIV

14 Modification of Regulations 49 USC 44921 49 CFR 1544 –49 CFR 1544.201 –49 CFR 1544.219

15 Alternatives 28 USC 570 49 USC 44912 49 USC 44918

16 28 USC 570 Federal Air Marshals Program 107 th Cong. S.1444 49 CFR 1544.223

17 49 USC 44912 Research and Development Scientific Advisory Panel

18 49 USC 44918 Crew Training

19 Disadvantages

20 Overview of Problems Effectiveness Harm to aircraft Pilot Distraction Removed from Pilot’s Possession

21 Effectiveness Knowledge that pilot is armed –No element of surprise by the pilot –Plan for guns in the cockpit –Attack differently Guns are not always the best method of eliminating danger –Not user specific

22 Harm to Aircraft Bullets depressurize the cabin –Two outflow valves that control the pressure –Bullets alter the amount of pressure the valves can handle Harm to passengers if the cabin is depressurized –Or if the attackers or pilots miss

23 Pilot Distraction Focus on flying the aircraft Other people should be responsible for security Back up plan –Be prepared for the worst –Not be the single protector

24 Removed from Pilot’s Possession Evaluate the Flight Deck Officer Program for proper training Israel’s El Al has the tightest security –Removed guns from the cockpit –Reasons: can be taken away from pilot, not user specific

25 Alternatives

26 Overview of Available Alternatives Firearms –Different bullet types –Locking devices Other Weapons –Electrical defenses –Knives –Clubs No Weapons –Martial arts –Cockpit separation

27 The Traditional Bullet –Metal jacket with solid metal core –High energy impact HowStuffWorks

28 Rubber Bullets Developed by Israel and Northern Ireland for crowd control in the 1960s Plastic or rubber casing Increase impact time –Reduces impulsive force Less transmitted energy Requires a special gun Fox Labs

29 Frangible Bullets Core composed of small spheres –Disperses energy on impact to a larger area –Bullets remain lodged in target Originally used by Air Marshals Glaser Safety

30 Locking Guns Magnetic Rings –Ring worn on pilot’s finger emit a magnetic field –Only when the ring is in contact with gun will weapon fire Biometric Technology –Biometrics: Use of specific human characteristic –Use fingerprint to “lock” gun to the pilot

31 Electrical Defense Stun Guns –Create a potential difference between two electrodes –Provide a low current, high voltage shock to attacker –Temporarily incapacitate the intruder Tasers –Similar to stun guns, except the electrodes detach and fly about 15 feet Liquid Stun Guns –Use current carrying fluid to transmit potential difference

32 Hand Weapons Clubs –Use a brute force method of incapacitating attacker Knives Effective during close combat

33 Cockpit Isolation Weapons should be totally removed from the cockpit Bulkhead between cabin and cockpit Implementation problems –Modification of structure Door for the cockpit Rest facilities Barrier

34 Recommendations

35 Proposed Actions Create new legislation –Phase out firearms in pilot’s control over time Research new means of aircraft security In interim, implement currently existing alternatives –Acknowledge existing legal foundation for changes

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