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The Organizational Changes 9/11 has had on Aviation Security

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Presentation on theme: "The Organizational Changes 9/11 has had on Aviation Security"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Organizational Changes 9/11 has had on Aviation Security
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University BA 317 By: Kelly Blafield Dave Christofano Marcel Huard Arsenia Moore February 25th, 2002

2 How it was before September 11th
Between 1949 and 1989, more than 95 bomb or sabotage related explosions have occurred on commercial jet aircraft Between 1968 and 1969, 233 aircraft worldwide were hijacked In 1961, 3 US aircraft were hijacked and attempted to be taken to Cuba. The attempt failed In 1970, 4 US aircraft were hijacked from European airports on their way to the US. 2 were US based, 2 were European based airlines. 1 was blown up at Cairo airport, the other 3 in the Jordanian desert. No passengers died.

3 Laws Passed to Curb Air Piracy
1961: All firearms carried by non-law enforcement persons are banned from being carried on their person aboard commercial aircraft. 1968: Voluntary use of “hijacker profiling” by airlines 1970: Sky Marshals program is approved and put into service 1972: X-Ray screening of passengers and their luggage becomes standard

4 The Pre- September 11th Security Organization
In 1993 and 1999, several federal agencies conduct security testing at the 100 largest airports. 1/4 failed basic security checks. The #1 fault: security workers failed to do their job. Why? Their basic job requirements and training. The basic security worker has little education. The job did not require a High school diploma or GED. No prior experience in the security field was necessary. Most were paid minimum wage and forced to work overtime. Leading job competition was Mc Donald's and Burger King. No full timers or benefits. Short training class with little or no re-current or follow-up training given. No laws or guidelines with regards to training or work.

5 September 11th

6 The Morning of September 11th
2 hijacked aircraft took down the World Trade Center Towers. 3rd hijacked aircraft took out one side of the Pentagon. 4th hijacked aircraft crashed into a Pennsylvania field bound for some unknown D.C. target. Hijackers used simple items such as pocketknives and box cutters to hijack the four planes. 2 of the aircraft used were Boeing 767, the other 2 were Boeing 757.

7 Security Before and After the Hijacking
After attacks passengers still were able to get through security with prohibited items like knives, and in one case, plastique explosives hidden within shoes. Baggage was still not thoroughly checked. Passengers were able to get pass security items like knives, guns, fireworks, and hazardous chemicals. Security personnel did their jobs with little scrutiny and even less security. Once terrorist attacks started happening the FAA shut the skies and airports in the U.S. down.

8 September 11th Security Hijackers used box cutters to hijack planes. It is believed cutters were hidden in shaving kit. Hijackers got on aircraft with no baggage and one way ticket. Used stolen credit cards to pay for tickets and used fake ID’s. In months following 9/11, there have been over 100 documented security breaches or near breaches in US airports. Many undercover persons have by-passed security with knives, guns, tazers, plastic explosives, and other prohibited items National Guard is placed on duty at all major US airports, yet problems still occurring. Sky marshals were ordered to fly more only after 9/11

9 Was 9/11 Preventable? There are no official laws regarding carrying of box cutters on a person, however security should have seen these items. This may have lead to confiscation. Security was not what it should have been. The machines were inadequate and overused. Personnel was underpaid and trained. New machines and personnel training have since been established.

10 The Uncertain Future?

11 The Transportation Security Administration
November 2001 saw the creation of the Transportation Security Administration, a part of the Department of Transportation. This agency is charged with running a federalized security program for aviation, rail, maritime, and pipeline transportation. By 2002, the TSA will have taken over complete control of Aviation security. This would make all security workers federal employees.

12 The New Federal Security Worker
The new federalized security workers will be able to have same benefits that all federal workers have. Training Set working hours and conditions High school, or GED required. Some jobs will require previous work experience Re-current and upgrade training on equipment and how to do job No overtime Benefits may be available to certain workers Pay based on federal government pay scale for Civil Servants Better background checks and better persons hired to do job

13 TSA: New Laws Baggage is prohibited on aircraft unless owner is onboard same aircraft, or onboard aircraft within company. (some exceptions will be made) Background checks for both new and current employees of all airlines will be more thorough. By November 2002, 2200 bomb detecting machines are to be in use at all Major US airports. All airlines are to upgrade and in some cases redesign their ticketing and baggage systems. All airlines will provide a completed passenger manifest to TSA before each flight through electronic means. By March 2002, all airlines are to implement and begin using new training for airline staff, especially pilots and flight attendants.

14 TSA: New Technology The TSA is looking into use of “Smart ID” system.
Use of facial profiling system, such as one used at 2001 NFL Super Bowl. Both are highly controversial technologies which can be used for wrong reasons, and can violate personal privacy. Use of Cockpit door locks.

15 Suggestions Many airports are seeing a shutdown a month because of security breaches. A better system for getting passengers through security needs to be established Many countries use the “Look for the terrorist” way, while the US uses the “Look for the terrorists weapon” way. Both need to be used in US. Congress and FAA need to cease procrastination of Aviation upgrades. Only 10% of suggestions have even been attempted since 1993.

16 “…we will not forget…”

17 Pictures courtesy of Google Image Search engine and the respective sites

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