2THE HUDSON’S BAY CO. Founded by Radisson and Groseilliers. Granted Royal Charter - exclusive trade rights.‘Stay by the Bay’ policy.Strict standardslittle room for barter.Worked for salaries.Often had better quality goods.No booze and no fraternizing.
3HUDSON’S BAY CO. RUPERT’S LAND All lands drained by rivers flowing into Hudson’s Bay (1/3 Can.)‘Made Beaver’ (MB)became commoncurrency.Ice free ports from Julyto Sept. made tradeswift and precise.Mb in CanadaLike cigarettesIn prison.
4THE NORTH WEST CO. - French Can. Traders that went to the Natives. Emerged from the ‘Montrealers’.Worked on commission and weremuch more aggressive.Hiverants (wintering partners)stayed in the Northwest.Fraternizing more common and marriages occurred.Voyageurs (the muscle) paddled and transported the goods.More willing to dicker and often used alcohol.Ft. William - Main trading postFt. William Trading Post
5THE NORTH WEST CO. The NWCo. moved inland and made trade easier for the Natives.Several inland posts wereconstructed.Fort William was established athead of Lake Superior. Theseheadquarters also had to be timespecific as winter froze rivers.
6TRANSPORTATION YORK BOAT - HBCo. double ended wood boat. - carried up to kiograms.- heavy & hard to portage.- 13 meters long / sail or paddle.CANOTS DU NORD/MAITRENWCo. Canoes m long.up to 4000 kilograms.Made of birch bark.Smaller but more portable forportages.Canot du MaitreCanot du Nord
7THE NATIVE PEOPLES OF THE NORTHWEST Home of four aboriginal nations.The Ojibwa, the Assiniboine, the Cree, and the Chipewyan. The inuit were further north.Natives became so involved in the fur trade that it disrupted their tradtional way of life.Became the ‘middle men’ of thefur trade.Contact with Europeans resultedin disease. Smallpox andmeasles.
8THE NATIVE PEOPLES OF THE NORTHWEST The ChipewyanThe Assiniboin
9THE BATTLE FOR THE FUR TRADE 1800-1810 HBCo. & NWCo. Fur trade battle grew fierce.Furs become scarce & posts moved farther and farther inland (as far west as B.C.)The “race” for the west was on.
10THE METIS (French for ‘mixed’) The NWCo. encouraged native/European marriages. It secured trading rights and helped hiverant’s lifestyle.Many lived in the Red River Valley and combined both Native and European lifestyles.Buffalo huntsPemmicanSold to NWCSeigneurial land patternsFarmers
14COLONY ON THE RED RIVEREnclosure brought Scottish farmers to N. America.Selkirk was director of the HBCo. and felt he could give Scottish farmers a home & supply HBCo. workers with food.Convinced HBCo. to give him sq. km. => Selkirk’s Grant.Nobody even considered thepeople already living there.SelkirkScottish Enclosures - farmers forced to leave, as landwas more valuable for grazing sheep.
15PROBLEMS FACED BY RED RIVER SETTLERS Nobody even considered the people already living there.Scottish not used to harsh winters.Macdonell’s farmers arrived too late to prepare for winter.Farmers first crops were failures.Pemmican proclamation ordered to feed settlers.NWCo. retaliated against Pemmican proclamation.
16HBCo. Settlers vs. NWCo. Metis The confrontations escalated to the legendary “Battle ofSeven Oaks”. Twenty one colonists and one Metis woulddie. It would bring the dispute to a full scale conflict.Selkirk hired Swiss mercenariesto help return the settlers for a thirdTime and made a deal with the localFirst Nations to lease the land for100 lbs of tobacco per year.Selkirk would later return to England and died while fighting several court cases regarding his Red River settlement.Cuthbert Grant ledthe Metis in a fightto regain their land
17The Merger of the HBC and the NWC (1821) George SimpsonAs the pelts declined the two fur trading companies had to merge => The Hudson’s Bay Company.George Simpson was put in charge.He became known as the “Little Emperor.”Social elitists => his new wife refused to socialize with the locals.Note - Simpson had his original Metis family removed before his new bride arrived- ‘Turn-Off’.Frances Simpson
18THE RED RIVER SETTLEMENT 1821-1860 Red River CartFor next 40 yrs. peaceful & stable self-sufficient community.By 1860, 80% ‘mixed’ descent.Built around the needs of the HBC.To this day, Winnipeg St. is The widest street in Can. It was built to fit ten “Red River Carts.”Red RiverRich Farm Land
19“Le commerce est libre! Vivre la liberte” By 1840, the Metis fought for the right to trade furs. Judge Adom Thom,found four Metis furtraders guilty of trading fur but ordered no sentence. The HBC’smonopoly had beenbroken.“Le commerce est libre! Vivre la liberte”“Business is open! Long live freedomAdam Thom
20CHANGES IN RED RIVER 1860-1870 Canada became a dominion. Canadians moved west to fertile soils of Red River.Most were protestant members of the Orange Order (anti-French / anti-Catholic / anti-Metis).=> tensions rose.Dr. John Schultz angered Metis with his NorWesterEconomic problems.Crop failures.Bison disappearing.HBC losing interest.Metis had no legal claim to land.Farmers startmoving West(Most wereprotestantanti-Fr.)Dr. John Schultz
22CANADA PURCHASES RUPERT’S LAND MacDonald buys HBC Rupert’sLand, for his ‘sea to sea’ nation.Became part of NW Territory.No one consults Metis farmersThey have no ‘legal’ claim to the land.In 1868, surveyors arrive to layout township grids.Seigneurial land patterns were not recognizedLand speculators soon follow the surveyors.Tensions rose and Louis Riel takes on leadership of the Metis.Seigneurial land patternswere not recognized.LOUIS RIEL
23THE RED RIVER REBELLION A. Riel began by forming the Metis National Committeeto fight for the Metis land.Riel then met with Governor McDougall but when things did not Go well he took control and seized munitions from Fort Garry.C. Riel established his “Provisional Government” to protect the Metis’ rights.He wanted to negotiate and had nointentions of rebellingagainst Canada.Riel’s ProvisionalGovernmentSometimes the bestdefence is a goodoffence.!!Ft Gary
24THE REBELLION (cont.) Schultz led the anti-Metis Canadian Party. Riel created the Metis List of Rights and setoff to Schultz’s home where he captured andheld 48 of his followers at Fort Garry.SchultzFort GarryMacDonald refusedto negotiate with“half breeds.”MacDonaldSchultz would escape, but while trying to freeother prisoners, several men,includingThomas Scott would be captured again.Thomas Scott
25What would you do with Thomas Scott? Riel’s ProvisionalGovernment
26THE EXECUTION OF THOMAS SCOTT While captive Thomas Scott was verballyand physically abusive & threatened thelife of Riel.Thomas ScottOn March 4, he would be executed by firing squad.By March 9, Riel had talked to Ottawaand things seemed to settle as Canadawas ready to discuss a new provincefor the Metis.Unfortunately, Schultz had made hisway east and had made a martyr out ofThomas Scott. The Orange Order wasfurious and rallied around the execution.Despite six shooters, Scott stilllived and a seventh shot wasneeded.
27MANITOBA CREATED By April, MacDonald was willing to compromise. hectares of land for the Metis =>Manitoba.- Colonel Wolseley & 1200 men to sent to keep thepeace.-Riel and his men were not be recognized as anofficial government.Riel fled Canada for the USA and wasbanished from Canada for five years.His men would later be grantedamnesty.Manitoba 1870
28Thomas Scott Execution Use your textbook Horizons 2nd Ed. p Do Page 163 #4. You are a resident of the Red River Settlement in Thomas Scott was executed yesterday. In a poem, letter, cartoon, or picture, describe your feelings about this event. You could take the viewpoint of a Metis, a colonist, or a member of the Orange Order. 10 Marks