Presentation on theme: "The Northwest in 1800 Chapter 4 SS 10. Hudson’s Bay Company Hudson’s Bay Company Started by Pierre Radisson and Medart de Groseillier in 1670 King."— Presentation transcript:
The Northwest in 1800 Chapter 4 SS 10
Hudson’s Bay Company Hudson’s Bay Company Started by Pierre Radisson and Medart de Groseillier in 1670 King Charles of England claimed all the land with rivers draining into Hudson Bay (called Rupert’s Land) HBC had exclusive trading rights on this land Built trading posts around Hudson Bay and the First Nations people came to them to trade furs
Hudson’s Bay Company The beaver pelt was used as a form of currency- goods were measured against one beaver pelt- called “made beaver” HBC had a rigid hierarchy: Directors ran the business from London Local bosses were called “Factors” Below them: clerks and labourers
Hudson’s Bay Company All employees were on salary- only the businessmen in London benefited from the profits The shipment of goods had to happen quickly because Hudson Bay was only ice- free between July and September CHECK OUT THE MAP ON PAGE 131
NORTHWEST COMPANY When New France fell in 1763, the French Fur Trade was seized by a group of English merchants from Montreal They were called the “Montrealers” They expanded networks and continues to employ French- Canadians as traders In 1783, several of these companies merged to create the NORTHWEST COMPANY
NORTH WEST COMPANY The Rivals! In 1783, the North West Company was established when the French traders united NOW HBC had competition!! NOW HBC had competition!! The NWC built forts inland much closer to where the First Nations people lived In response, HBC also built some inland forts THE RACE FOR FURS WAS ON!!
NORTHWEST COMPANY NWC employed “voyaguers” who paddled canoes and carried cargo in the Northwest and on the journey from Fort William to Montreal They mapped new territories and established new trading posts
MAP COMPARISION Check out the HBC map on page 131 AND Compare it to the NWC map on page 133 WHAT DO YOU NOTICE?
THE NATIVE PEOPLES OF THE NORTHWEST Before European contact, the Northwest was home to five aboriginal nations: Ojibwa Assiniboin Cree Chipewyan Inuit (on Northern edges of Hudson Bay)
First Nations People and the Fur Trade Aboriginal people had a long history of being involved in the fur trade as Trappers Traders Guides Middlemen (a dealer who exchanges goods between two parties)
First Nations People and the Fur Trade For some, the fur trade disrupted the aboriginals’ way of life Caused aboriginals to abandon other seasonal practices such as fishing and perserving food SO MUCH DEMAND FOR FURS, THEY WERE FORCED TO BE FULL- TIME TRAPPERS