Presentation on theme: "The Red River Rebellion 1870. Annexing the Northwest After Confederation, the Red River Métis were still British subjects, but they wanted to become part."— Presentation transcript:
The Red River Rebellion 1870
Annexing the Northwest After Confederation, the Red River Métis were still British subjects, but they wanted to become part of the Dominion of Canada. Canada negotiated with the Hudson’s Bay Company, and bought Rupert’s Land (including Red River), renaming the entire region the North-West Territories. Neither the Canadians nor the British, however, had bothered consulting the Métis at any time.
Louis Riel and The Red River Métis (1869–1870) The Canadian government started making plans to survey the land so that white settlers could move in. The sale of Rupert’s Land and the subsequent surveying of square townships angered the residents of the land, as they felt that the government was trying to take their land away. The Métis didn’t want this, so they organized themselves and named a leader from among them, Louis Riel.
Events Leading to The Red River Rebellion Riel decided to set up a provisional government to maintain order in the Red River settlement and the means by which it would enter Confederation as the province of Manitoba. Riel wanted to protect the rights of the Métis, as he felt the Governor McDougall would give members of the Canadian Party all of the power. The Métis drew up a list of Rights (p. 159).
Events Leading to The Red River Rebellion Riel feared civil war with the Canadian Party. In early December, Riel led a party of armed Métis to Schultz’s home, which was used as headquarters for the Canadian Party. Schultz and his supporters were taken to Fort Garry. Riel was prepared to negotiate with the Canadian government, but PM John A. Macdonald refused to negotiate with “these miserable half- breeds”. (p. 161)
The Métis Bill of Rights The Red River Rebellion Led by Riel, the Métis demanded several things from the federal government, including: -the right to enter Confederation as a province -the right to be represented in Parliament -the right to have both English and French as official languages in their schools and courts -the right to control their own local affairs -the right to maintain their traditional way of life
The Red River Rebellion Louis Riel formed the Métis National Committee to fight for Métis rights on the land. Their first task was to greet the new governor of the North-West Territories, William McDougall. The welcome was not a warm one, as McDougall was to told to go back to Ottawa. Next, the Métis took over Fort Garry and seized its munitions. The Red River Rebellion had begun. Riel had no intention of starting a rebellion, but wanted to ensure that their rights and traditions would be protected under the new Canadian authority.
Events Leading to The Red River Rebellion In the meantime, Schultz escaped from Fort Garry and planned to free the other prisoners. However, the Métis captured Schultz and his followers before they could attack. The most aggressive member of the Canadian party was Thomas Scott. He loudly spoke against the Métis, and threatened he would kill Louis Riel. On March 4, he was executed by firing squad by Riel’s provisional government. Many felt that the crisis had passed and the Ottawa delegation departed on March 16 in an optimistic mood.
The Red River Rebellion However, Schultz had also left the Northwest for Ontario. He began to publicize his views on the Métis and the execution of Thomas Scott. Through his actions, the Orange Order created a mythology around Thomas Scott—he was transformed into a Protestant martyr who was cruelly murdered by the Métis.
The Red River Rebellion Prime Minister Macdonald was scared of the instability in the region, and was worried that it would leave Canada vulnerable to the United States. He negotiated with the Métis and allowed the Red River colony to become part of Canada – as the province of Manitoba – in He also promised that: They would have an elected assembly English and French would be recognized as official languages The Métis would receive title (official claim) to their lands The Métis would receive additional lands.
The Red River Rebellion English-Canadians wanted revenge for the execution of Thomas Scott, however, so they demanded that Macdonald do something about it Macdonald sent 1200 troops to Red River to take control of the new province The members of the provisional government went into hiding, and Riel fled to the United States