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DEVELOPING THE WEST Macdonald’s Canada Becomes a Reality: 1867-1885.

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Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPING THE WEST Macdonald’s Canada Becomes a Reality: 1867-1885."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEVELOPING THE WEST Macdonald’s Canada Becomes a Reality:

2 FROM VISION TO REALITY Following Confederation on July 1, 1867 plans were underway to purchase Rupert’s land from the Hudson’s Bay Company Final sale made in $1.5 Million (dollars) 3 million hectares or 7 million acres HBC kept 1/20 th of the best farmland in the area and all HBC Fur Trading Posts and routes The new Canadian Government sent out surveyors to begin sub dividing the area – forgot to consider impact on First Nations and Metis

3 THE FUR TRADE – The Fur Trade in the Northwest was an intricate network of trading relations between different First Nations Groups and two main Fur Trading Companies HUDSON BAY COMPANY - English NORTHWEST COMPANY - French Both companies competed against each other Both companies had different trading routes and policies Horizons, pg.

4 WOMEN IN THE FUR TRADE Women played a pivotal role (see readings) Relations between First Nations women and Fur traders were encouraged for economic and social reasons As time went on, children, then grandchildren were born A new culture developed that blended French and Ojibway and/or Cree culture Eventually this group became known as Métis

5 MÉTIS LIFE The Métis settled in an area where the Assiniboine and Red Rivers merged This area was known as the Red River Settlement Today this is Winnipeg Métis life was centred around the fur trade and the buffalo hunt But life began to change dramatically in the 1820s

6 Red River Settlement A typical home on the Red River Settlement

7 Map of the Red River Settlement Seigneurial system of land tenure based on settlements in New France

8 METIS WAY OF LIFE Michif language blended Ojibway and Cree with French and even Scottish Culture reflected different aspects of all these different cultures “Country” marriages – French trappers and First Nations women Catholic Religion French vs. English Economy built around the HBC – fur trade, sale of pemmican, some farming Most significant factor in Metis way of life – bison hunt

9 BISON HUNT

10 RULES OF THE BISON HUNT No buffalo to be run on the Sabbath day (Sunday) No party to fork off, lag behind or go before without permission (of the Captain of the Hunt) No person or party to run buffalo before the general order Every captain with his men in turn to patrol the camp and keep order For the first trespass of these laws, the offender to have his saddle and bridle cut up For the second offence, the coat to be taken off the offender’s back and cut up For the third offence, the offender to be flogged Any person convicted of theft, even to the value of a sinew, to brought to the middle of the camp and the crier to call out his or her name three times, adding the word “thief” each time (p. 141)

11 LIFE CHANGES IN RED RIVER In 1812 changes occurred that would have profound impact on Métis and their way of life A Scottish Earl (Lord Selkirk) arranged for poor Scottish Farmers to migrate to the Red River Colony Arrived late in the year and had to winter at Fort Pembina By the third winter, their commander Miles Macdonell issued a “Pemmican Proclamation” to stop the trade of pemmican as a way to help new immigrants NWC & Metis retaliated The new governor, Robert Semple, retaliated as well: burned a NWC fort

12 SELKIRK GRANT

13 SEVEN OAKS

14 NWC & HBC MERGE After decades of competition and battles, both companies were spent – physically, economically and financially Merged under HBC NWC leadership were given shares in HBC, but later sold them HBC, under George Simpson, downsized their workforce HBC now controlled almost all of the North-West A sort of peace settled over the Red River settlement until Confederation

15 JOHN A. MACDONALD’S PLAN Settlement plans for the North-West did not consider the Metis and other settlers at Red River In 1869 the Canadian government purchased Rupert’s land and the plan was launched HBC received $1.5 million and 2.8 million hectares of farmland Surveyors arrived in Red River and were stopped by Louis Riel and angry settlers Seeing no official government, Riel formed the Métis National Committee to represent Métis concerns – a daring move They seized Fort Garry from the HBC and formed a “provisional” government to negotiate with the Canadian government

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17 CREATION OF MANITOBA May 1870 Canadian government passed the Manitoba Act to create Manitoba as the 5 th province Metis promised 1.4 million acres of land in Manitoba Received offer in the form of SCRIP 30 years for the deal to be finalized - in the meantime: Land speculators Poor location of new land No tools to farm Their way of life was gone

18 SCRIP Value – 160 acres or $160

19 METIS DIASPORA


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