Presentation on theme: "Changes: The Red River Settlement between"— Presentation transcript:
1Changes: The Red River Settlement between 1860- 1870 SS 10NAULTHorizons textPages
2Lots of changes in the 1860’s… Many people immigrated to the NorthwestCanada became a dominion (a country that rules itself)The HBC started to declineMany Canadians moved West to find available farm land
3The Orange OrderMany of the new Canadian settlers were Protestants and members of the Orange Order:A violently anti- French, anti- Catholic movementThey were prejudiced against the Metis (surprise!) because they were French, Catholic, and of mixed heritage…
4The Orange OrderDr. JohnSchultzAlthough they were small in number, the presence of the Protestants increased tensions in the Red River a lot.One of the first immigrants was Dr. John Schultz, he opened a general store, took over the newspaper “The NorWester”By the end of the 1860’s he had organized a small group called the Canadian Party which hoped to gain control of the settlement.
5Economic problems…Economic problems in the Red River contributed to rising tensions…Crop failuresDecrease in bisonLess investment by the HBC
6Land ownership issues… Added to this was the fact that:The Metis never made legal claim to their territory although they had farmed it for yearsAccording to HBC policy, all HBC employees were entitled to their farmland if they lived on it for 3 yearsPROBLEM: The Metis believed that if a person cleared the land and farmed it, they had the right to it.
7Canada Purchases Rupert’s Land John A Macdonald and D’Arcy McGee wanted to create a country stretching from sea to seaThe HBC wanted to sell Rupert’s Land because the fur trade was declining and they were finding it difficult to maintain control over such a large territory
8The negotiations begin… The HBC and the Canadian government began negotiations to transfer control of Rupert’s LandNo one bothered to consult the people who lived in the Red River SettlementThey reached an agreement in November Rupert’s Land joined the North-Western Territory and the entire area was renamed “The North- West Territories” (see pg 157)
9The New Canada After this deal, Canada doubled in size. The HBC received $1.5 million from the government, and 2.8 million hectares of prairie farmlandBefore the deal was finalized, land surveyors arrived in the Red River settlement and started laying out grids for the townships…
10Problems brewing… THAT SAME YEAR, LOUIS RIEL RETURNED The land surveyors assumed that the people who lived on the land did NOT own it and had no right to claim it…THAT SAME YEAR,LOUIS RIEL RETURNEDTO THE RED RIVER…
11Louis RielBorn in 1844, he was the son of Louis Riel Sr. who was the Metis leader for many years.He was a literate, well- educated lawyerHe was fluent in both English and FrenchHe was an excellent speakerHe was only 24 years old when he returned to the Red River(Film: Louis Riel:The Red River Rebellion)
12The Red River Rebellion In 1869, the tensions in the red River were very highSettlers were angry at the HBC and at the land surveyorsRiel formed the Metis National Committee to fight for Metis rights
13Tensions rise…That summer, the Metis confronted the surveyors and told them to go back to Ottawa because they intended to govern themselvesThen, several Metis (under Riel’s command) seized Fort Garry and stole the munitionsTHE RED RIVER REBELLION HAD BEGUN!
14Goal of the RebellionRiel and supporters simply wanted to ensure that the people of Red River would retain their rights and traditions when it came under Canadian government rule.They did not want to rebel against Canada…
15The Provisional Government Riel set up a Provisional gov’tThey wanted the Red River Settlement to join Canada as it’s own province- ManitobaRiel’s Provisional Government
16The Provisional Government Why did Riel want a new province?- He feared that if McDougall took charge of the area, the Metis would be ignored and would lose their rights
17Metis List of Rights (see page 159) What do you think of these rights? Are they fair?
18Civil War?Riel feared that a civil war would begin because the Canadian Party was armed and ready to attack the MetisTo stop this from happening…Riel led a party of armed Metis to Schulz’s home (headquarters of Canadian Party)They took 48 of Schulz’s followers to Fort Garry
19Riel and MacdonaldAfter this, Riel declared that he was ready to negotiate with the Canadian governmentMacdonald refused to recognize Riel and would not negotiate with himTHE METIS DID NOT GIVE UP!
20Escape from Fort Garry Thomas Scott Schultz escaped Fort Garry and plotted to free the other prisonersHowever, the Metis arrested them again shortly after they escapedOne of the prisoners was a member of the Canadian Party named:Thomas Scott
21Thomas ScottScott was a particularly out spoken and belligerent member of the Canadian PartyHe was strongly anti- Metis and was verbally and physically abusive to the guards in jailHe also threatened Louis Riel’s life
22Thomas ScottIn response to his behaviour, Riel and his provisional government decided to execute him in MarchAlthough all six members of the firing squad took aim together, they did not kill Scott immediatelyThe squad director had to shoot him again to kill him
23OUTRAGE!Schultz and the Orange Order made Thomas Scott into a Protestant martyr who had been cruelly murdered by the MetisCries for justice and retaliation soon reached the government officials in Ottawa(Looking for bias in Thomas Scott articles)
24A Compromise…In April, Macdonald finally offered a compromise to the Metis:He did not allow provincial control of public landsBUTHe did give the Metis hectares of land to recognize their aboriginal title
25Manitoba becomes a province… On May 2nd,legislationconfirmed thatManitoba wouldbe included into Canada
26Riel flees into exileWhen government troops arrived in the Red River in August,RIEL WAS GONE…He (wisely) had fled to the USA…All of the member of the provisional government were granted Amnesty- except Riel-HE WAS BANISHED FROM CANADA FOR 5 YEARS
27Riel in ExileRiel would spend the next 15 years in exile in the United States…HOWEVER,He would later return totake up a new cause…