4 Background: Red River Settlement Mainly Métis (>80% 1860s)Trading and huntersDeveloped a distinct cultureClose-knit community
5 Background: Red River Settlement Fear of US Annexation (from Canada and RRS)Some people weren’t happy with how the HBC governed the Red River SettlementNOTES!NOTES!
6 Background: Red River Settlement Why did the HBC want to sell the Red River colony?Any ideas?
7 Background: Red River Settlement Why did the HBC want to sell the Red River colony?3 Reasons1. Wasn’t a agriculturally successful2. Fur trade was on the decline (less profitable)3. Canada wanted Rupert’s Land: WHY?NOTES!
8 Why Canada wanted Red River NOTES!John A. Macdonald wanted a Canada that was...“A Mari usque ad Mare”US threat: (Minnesota had 300,000 people just south of Red River - Fear of annexation)Great farm land for Western expansion
11 Split Page Note Taking: The Rupert’s Land Act, 1868 Canada bought Rupert’s land from the HBC for $1,500,000Renamed North-West TerritoriesHBC were given some land and kept fortsMétis, First Nations and other settlers weren’t consulted
12 Critical Thinking Exercise To understand opinions about Canada’s purchase of Rupert’s Land Read Pg 217 Canada RevisitedUnderstand each parties opinion towards the takeover of Rupert’s Land
13 On October 11, 1869, Canada sent out surveying crews to Rupert’s Land. Met by Metis indifference
14 Canada &SurveyorsThe MetisNOTES!See page 105 Challenge of the West
15 Métis and Canadian Differences Land surveyingIdeas on Land Ownership -Métis hadn’t bought land -But they had established small farmsNOTES!
16 To Make Matters Worse NOTES! John Schultz “Canadian Party” - He owned the Nor’wester newspaperAn immigrant from eastern Canada, was a vocal and powerful Métis haterHe championed Canadian interestsNOTES!
17 John SchultzMade comments that under modern times would be regarded as “promoting hatred”Primary Source:“The Métis should either be driven from the country, or kept as cart drivers”“The Métis, the indolent (slow) and the careless, like the native tribes of the country, will fall back before the march of superior intelligence”NOTES!
18 A Leader Emerges: Louis Riel Hated and lack of respect for Métis rights and people demanded actionLouis Riel emerged as the leader of the Métis resistanceBlocked surveying crews
19 Who was Louis Riel? Complete a Bio-file on Louis Riel Use Canada Revisited on Pg 219
20 Louis the Leader NOTES! Set up the National Committee of the Metis Fought for language, and rights of the MetisBlocked lieutenant-governor McDougall entry into Red River SettlementNOTES!
21 Métis Capture HBC’s Fort Garry ~The Rebellion Begins~ NOTES!Seized munitionsDidn’t want to rebel against CanadaThey just wanted to protect Metis culture and rights
22 Metis Provisional Government Established a provisional government to negotiate with CanadaWanted the Red River Settlement to be accepted into Confederation as the province of ManitobaEstablished a List of Rights (see hand-out)NOTES!
23 Metis List of Rights: ~5 major demands~ NOTES!1. The right for the territory to become a province2. Representation in Canadian government3. Control over local affairs4. Both French and English in schools and courts5. Metis retain land, customs and way of life
24 Metis RebellionCaptured John Schultz (Canadian Party) and the very hostile/angry Thomas ScottScott threatened to kill Riel and hit guards.Scott sentenced to death by Riel’s provisional government(read about Thomas Scott’s execution Pg )NOTES!
26 Reaction to Thomas Scott Execution Uproar in Ontario (see hand-out)- Why Ontario not Quebec?Hero or Villain?Newspapers called for revenge
27 Interpreting Paintings: The Execution of Thomas Scott
28 5 Steps to Interpreting Paintings Step 1: What do you see? Identify people and placesStep 2: What is the Context? What event is happeningStep 3: What is being portrayed? How are people made to look?Step 4: What is the artist’s bias?How does the artist feel about the event?Step 5: What is the Message?What is the painting telling us?
29 POP QUIZ 1 Who was Louis Riel? 2 What did the Metis people want? 3 Why did the Metis feel threatened?4 Who was against the Metis?5 Name 2 demands the Metis wanted from the Metis List of Rights?6 In the absence of a government what did the national committee of the Metis set up?7 Why was Thomas Scott sentenced to death by the Metis court?8 What was the reaction to Thomas Scott’s death?9 In your opinion was the illustration of Thomas Scott’s execution a primary source illustration? Unbiased or biased?10 Name one thing you should do in the event of a lockdown?
30 The Manitoba Act, 1870 NOTES! Manitoba Act 1870 Made Manitoba the 5th province in CanadaBased on the Métis’ List of RightsFrench and English were official languages and Roman Catholic and Protestant funded schools200,000 hectares of land to MetisNOTES!REVIEW VIDEO ON L R & RED RIVER REBELLION
32 After the Manitoba Act Land is Given Out: Scrips Dominion land office conducted a censusFound there were around 5088 people to distribute land toPeople applied for land (in English)Scrips were given out ($160) (any substitute for currency which is not legal tender)Many Metis didn’t understand the Scrip System and sold them to developers
34 After the Manitoba Act NOTES! Many of the Métis moved from Manitoba to the Northwest Territories (Saskatchewan)NOTES!
35 After the Manitoba Act NOTES! Why did they move? Ontario settlers and troops resented the MetisThe buffalo were being over huntedNOTES!
36 After the Manitoba Act NOTES! Riel Flees to US Why? Macdonald sent 1200 troops to:-appease Ontario-protect from US annexationTroops were very violent and attacked MetisPrimary Source: “Should these miserable half-breeds not disband, they must be put down” -MacdonaldNOTES!