Presentation on theme: "ITGS Hardware Based on the textbook “Information Technology in a Global Society for the IB Diploma” by Stuart Gray."— Presentation transcript:
ITGS Hardware Based on the textbook “Information Technology in a Global Society for the IB Diploma” by Stuart Gray
Hardware Tangible, physical parts of the computer which work together to input, process, store and output data. Hardware is behind EVERYTHING you learn in ITGS
Computer Types Supercomputers – cutting edge of computing technology; used for high speed calculations Mainframes – Very powerful computers; used to read large amounts of data from storage, process it and store the results quickly
Other Computer Types Desktop Computers Laptop Computers Netbooks Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) Smart Phones Embedded Systems – specialized computer that is “hidden” in another device. i.e. cars – anti-lock breaks; washing machines – control water usage
Hardware Activity #1 Use the internet, manufacturer’s websites and advertisements to find examples of different computer types. Create a table that compares the major specifications of each type. Include at least: the number of processors, processor speed, RAM, hard disk capacity and cost using the correct units for each. Be sure to cite your sources properly. (4 marks)
Activity #2 - Background The IT industry is know for its rapid pace of development, with new products continually being released, each claiming to be better than its predecessor. New computers have faster processors, higher capacity hard disks and more RAM. New phones have additional features and faster network connections. With this rapid development comes a price – each year thousands of tons of old electronics are unsafely discarded. These can threaten the health of people and the environment. Heavy metals from equipment can leach into the soil and ground water and workers dismantle equipment in dangerous conditions in developing countries.
Hardware Activity #2 - Task What can be done about this problem? Safely recycling electronic waste is expensive – who should be responsible for paying this price – the manufacturers, the customers or somebody else? Discuss possible solutions. Be sure to cite the sources of your research. (8 marks)
Input Devices Hardware that allows entry of information into the computer; can be text, images, sound or movement. Keyboards – Concept and Soft (virtual) Mice Trackballs Touch pads Touch screens
Input Devices Continued Microphones Game controllers Barcode Scanners Magnetic Stripe Readers Smart cards Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) – lotto tickets or multiple choice tests Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) – bottom of checks
Input Devices Continued Scanners Sensors and probes Digital Cameras Webcams Radio Tags – locating or tracking objects Radio Frequency Identification (RFID chips) Share ITGSopedia Video
Input Device Activity #3 Some people have claimed the new generation of motion input devices and game consoles can help young people improve their fitness. Some schools have even bought game consoles for their PE departments. Research the use of these devices. Analyze the benefits and problems. Do you think the benefit is significant? (8 marks)
Output Devices Items of hardware that the computer uses to present data to the user. Screens Speakers Printers
Processor Technology The center of ALL computers is the Central Processing Unit (CPU) or microprocessor; responsible for performing all instructions and tasks that the computer does. The speed of the processor determines how quickly tasks can be completed. Processors generate heat so they need to be kept cool.
Processors Components Clock Speed – speed processor executes instructions and is measured in Megahertz (MHz) or Gigahertz (GHz) and possibly in the future in Terahertz (THz). MIPS – Million of Instructions Per Second Multicore processors – can run more than one task at the same time Motherboards – Processor connects to this and can provide ports and connections for other parts of the system.
Storage Devices These are used to store both the data that a computer system processes and the software programs that tell it how to process the data. 2 Types: Primary and Secondary Primary – found inside the computer and is directly connected to the motherboard; faster than secondary Secondary – Any device used to store the data and programs installed on a computer system; cheaper than primary
Primary Storage Random Access Memory (RAM) – temporary storage for programs and data that are being used Read Only Memory (ROM) – Contents can NOT be changed; the manufacturer programs the contents of ROM; e.g. tells the computer how to boot up
Secondary Storage Magnetic tapes Magnetic disks – can include external hard disks Optical storage – CDs, DVDs and Blu-ray disks Flash memory – flash drives, SD cards
Data Storage Bits – binary digits = ones and zeros Bytes = 8 bits; 1 byte can store a value between 0 and 225 Kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes and terrabytes Standards = govern the meaning of each bit and byte ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange = uses alphabet Unicode – more modern code (Both ASCII and Unicode are plain text standards) Graphics standards – BMP, JPEG, PNG are all file formats
Hardware Activity #4 Consider the following examples of information technology. (6 marks) Identify all of the input, output and storage technologies used by each: A. ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) B. An airport self check-in machine C. Cell phone D. An in car GPS navigation system E. Aircraft cockpit F. A cleaning robot
Hardware Activity #5 Find and describe a suitable computer for the user in each of the scenarios on the next slide. Use the internet for research. The computer must have appropriate hardware specifications for the situation. In some cases additional input and output devices may be needed. Try to find a solution that offers good value for the money. (12 marks)
Hardware Activity #5 Scenarios A. A family wanting a computer for general use (browsing, typing up homework, playing simple games). B. An amateur film maker who wants to record her own films (she already has a digital camera for this) and then edit them on her computer. C. A businesswoman who wants a computer to use on her daily train commute. The typical journey lasts hours so she has plenty of time to work on company reports and spreadsheets. She also needs the ability to catch up on her e- mail and access files stored on her company’s network.