2TERMS TO KNOW PERSONAL COMPUTER CPU BIT & BYTE HARDWARE INPUT & OUTPUT RAM & ROMSTORAGE DEVICESOFTWAREOPERATING SYSTEMNETWORK
3PERSONAL COMPUTERSA personal computer is used by one person at a time. Includes desktop and laptop computers, MP3 players, PDA’s, etc.PC = Microsoft Windows OS (made by IBM, Dell, Gateway...)Mac = Mac OS (made only by Apple)
4CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) CPU= computer’s brainThe CPU performs calculations and carries out all the instructions you give to your computerCPU speed is measured in:Megahertz (MHz) - millions of CPU cycles per secondGigahertz (GHz) - billions of CPU cylcles per second
5BITS & BYTES Computers can only process two numbers: 1 and 0. A bit is the smallest unit of information, always either a 1 or a 0.Eight bits make a byte5 page paper = 40 KB (40,000 bytes)Movie on DVD = 5 GB (5 billion bytes)
6HARDWAREHardware is the collection of physical devices that make up your computer system. These devices are also called components.
7INPUTS & OUTPUT PORTS Input = user enters information into a computer Types of Ports:USBFirewireCompact Flash (CF Card)Secure Disk (SD Card)Input = user enters information into a computerOutput = computer delivers information back to a user
8Hmmm......Is it an input or output?keyboardmouseprinterscannerspeakersdigital cameraQ: What are 3 hardware components that you can see outside the computer and what are 3 components hidden inside the computer?
9RAM & ROMA computer mainly uses 2 kinds of memory: RAM or ROM, depending on the taskROM = permanent information, long-term memoryRAM = temporary information, short-term memory (erased when computer turns off)RAM computer chips
10STORAGE DEVICES Storage devices: * hard drive * flash drive * CD’s, DVD’s, & Blue-ray* floppy diskA computer stores information in 3 main places: RAM, ROM, or storage deviceBefore you save your work, the data is stored in RAM. When you save a file, you move the information from RAM to a storage device.How is RAM like short-term memory?If you had a 1GB file, where could you store it?
11SOFTWARE Types of Software: * web browsers * email * word processing Software is a set of instructions that makes it possible for your computer to perform tasks. It translates your commands into the language of binary numbers. Software can also be called a program or an application.3 categories of software:* Operating System (OS)* Application* UtilityTypes of Software:* web browsers** word processing* spreadsheet* database* presentation
12OPERATING SYSTEMSThe operating system controls all the software programs and allows hardware to work properly.Types of operating systems:Microsoft WindowsMac OSLinuxHandheld OS (PDA’s MP3’s, Cell Phones, etc.MS-DOS = text interface (“old school” way of input)GUI = graphical user interface that allows for point and clickName 6 types of application software and describe what each one allows you to do.What types of software program controls all the other software on your computer?
13Why is it helpful for schools or companies to use a network? A computer network is a group of computers connected together. Networks allow people to share information and resources such as printers, storage devices, and Internet connections.A network server is a powerful computer that lets users share storage space and applicationsIn a computer network, what do you call the computer that provides shared storage space and applications to other computers?Why is it helpful for schools or companies to use a network?