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IC3 GS3 Standard Computing Fundamentals Module

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Presentation on theme: "IC3 GS3 Standard Computing Fundamentals Module"— Presentation transcript:

1 IC3 GS3 Standard Computing Fundamentals Module

2 Objectives Identify different types of computer devices
Identify the role of the CPU including how the speed of a microprocessor is measured Identify concepts related to computer memory (measurement of memory, RAM, ROM) Identify the features and benefits (storage capacity, shelf-life, etc.) of different storage media Identify the types and purposes of standard input and output devices on desktop or laptop computers Identify how hardware devices are connected to and installed on a computer system.

3 PROCESS OF COMPUTING Input: Some device or method to input data so it can be processed Process: Circuits and programs to process the data Output: the result of its processing Storage: Some mechanism for storing data

4 The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
tiny silicon chip-BRAINS of computer System clock- an electronic pulse that controls the speed of the CPU The rate of the pulse is measured in megahertz (MHz).

5 Communicating with the CPU (cont.)
ASCII code and binary code series of 1s and 0s - every 1 or 0 is a bit of information. Data is stored in a series of 8-bit combinations (byte)called a byte. Every character, such as a letter, number, or punctuation mark, is a byte created from a unique combination of ones and zeros. 8 bits = 1 byte Today most personal computers have processors that use 32-bit and 64 bit numbers

6 Computer Memory Data being processed by a CPU is stored in SYSTEM MEMORY. Not permanent—if power fails, everything in memory is lost. Must be stored on a disk or some other device for PERMANENT MEMORY--so it is not lost each time the computer shuts down

7 Types of Computer Memory
There are two types of memory found on a motherboard: RAM: Random Access Memory ROM: Read-Only Memory RAM chip

8 Random Access Memory (RAM)
short-term memory where data is processed while a program is running can be accessed and modified as needed loses any data it holds if the computer is shut down-”volatile”. RAM is also called main memory

9 Read-Only Memory (ROM)
memory placed on the motherboard by the manufacturer and contains instructions, such as BIOS ROM, that tell the computer how to start itself cannot be accessed or modified by application programs contents of this memory are not lost when the computer is shut down

10 Storage Devices PERMANENT:
Hard disks – Permanent, large capacity, not removable Network drive- “the I drive” REMOVABLE: Magnetic Media - floppy disks CD’s/DVD’S—Optical Media Flash Memory - Flash memory sticks or cards Virtual or Internet Storage - not a physical part of the computer (

11 Removable Types of Storage
CD-Roms can store up to 680MB and are used to store data, music, and graphics. Can be read by a digital device. CD-R –after recording, it cannot be changed. CD-RW – A type of CD disk that can be recorded, and erased DVD used to store digital video. Many computers now have a CD/DVD drive that can read both types of optical media.

12 Input and Output Devices
INPUT devices: enable user to enter data and commands to the computer to be processed OUTPUT devices: enable the computer to give or show results of its processing Some devices, such as a modem, can perform both input and output operations.

13 Input Devices Keyboard Mouse Voice Recognition (microphones) Scanners
Joystick/controller Trackball Graphics tablet Touch display screen Digital cameras Robotic controls

14 Output Devices — Monitors
used to display video output to a user Factors that influence the quality of a monitor: Screen size: The diagonal measurement in inches of the display area Resolution: The number of pixels that can be displayed in the display area Dot pitch: The distance between each pixel in the display area

15 Output Devices — Printers
Used to create a hard copy of a document or image Vary by speed, quality, and price. The most popular types: Laser: Produce images using the same techniques as copier machines Ink-Jet: Use fine nozzles to spray ink onto the page as the paper passes through

16 Other Output Devices Plotters Projectors Speakers Voice synthesizers

17 The Motherboard A circuit board that mounts inside the microcomputer’s plastic case. It contains: The central processing unit or CPU Basic controllers Expansion ports and slots Memory

18 Diagram of a Simplified Motherboard

19 Expansion Ports and Slots
Ports are specialized plugs that connect peripheral devices to the computer’s motherboard. Expansion slots are openings on the motherboard where a circuit board or memory chip can be added.

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