2 Objectives Identify different types of computer devices Identify the role of the CPU including how the speed of a microprocessor is measuredIdentify concepts related to computer memory (measurement of memory, RAM, ROM)Identify the features and benefits (storage capacity, shelf-life, etc.) of different storage mediaIdentify the types and purposes of standard input and output devices on desktop or laptop computersIdentify how hardware devices are connected to and installed on a computer system.
3 PROCESS OF COMPUTINGInput: Some device or method to input data so it can be processedProcess: Circuits and programs to process the dataOutput: the result of its processingStorage: Some mechanism for storing data
4 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) tiny silicon chip-BRAINS of computerSystem clock- an electronic pulse that controls the speed of the CPUThe rate of the pulse is measured in megahertz (MHz).
5 Communicating with the CPU (cont.) ASCII code and binary codeseries of 1s and 0s - every 1 or 0 is a bit of information.Data is stored in a series of 8-bit combinations (byte)called a byte. Every character, such as a letter, number, or punctuation mark, is a byte created from a unique combination of ones and zeros.8 bits = 1 byteToday most personal computers have processors that use 32-bit and 64 bit numbers
6 Computer MemoryData being processed by a CPU is stored in SYSTEM MEMORY.Not permanent—if power fails, everything in memory is lost.Must be stored on a disk or some other device for PERMANENT MEMORY--so it is not lost each time the computer shuts down
7 Types of Computer Memory There are two types of memory found on a motherboard:RAM: Random Access MemoryROM: Read-Only MemoryRAM chip
8 Random Access Memory (RAM) short-term memory where data is processed while a program is runningcan be accessed and modified as neededloses any data it holds if the computer is shut down-”volatile”.RAM is also called main memory
9 Read-Only Memory (ROM) memory placed on the motherboard by the manufacturer and contains instructions, such as BIOS ROM, that tell the computer how to start itselfcannot be accessed or modified by application programscontents of this memory are not lost when the computer is shut down
10 Storage Devices PERMANENT: Hard disks – Permanent, large capacity, not removableNetwork drive- “the I drive”REMOVABLE:Magnetic Media - floppy disksCD’s/DVD’S—Optical MediaFlash Memory - Flash memory sticks or cardsVirtual or Internet Storage - not a physical part of the computer (dropbox.com)
11 Removable Types of Storage CD-Roms can store up to 680MB and are used to store data, music, and graphics. Can be read by a digital device.CD-R –after recording, it cannot be changed.CD-RW – A type of CD disk that can be recorded, and erasedDVD used to store digital video. Many computers now have a CD/DVD drive that can read both types of optical media.
12 Input and Output Devices INPUT devices: enable user to enter data and commands to the computer to be processedOUTPUT devices: enable the computer to give or show results of its processingSome devices, such as a modem, can perform both input and output operations.
14 Output Devices — Monitors used to display video output to a userFactors that influence the quality of a monitor:Screen size: The diagonal measurement in inches of the display areaResolution: The number of pixels that can be displayed in the display areaDot pitch: The distance between each pixel in the display area
15 Output Devices — Printers Used to create a hard copy of a document or imageVary by speed, quality, and price.The most popular types:Laser: Produce images using the same techniques as copier machinesInk-Jet: Use fine nozzles to spray ink onto the page as the paper passes through
16 Other Output DevicesPlottersProjectorsSpeakersVoice synthesizers
17 The MotherboardA circuit board that mounts inside the microcomputer’s plastic case. It contains:The central processing unit or CPUBasic controllersExpansion ports and slotsMemory
19 Expansion Ports and Slots Ports are specialized plugs that connect peripheral devices to the computer’s motherboard.Expansion slots are openings on the motherboard where a circuit board or memory chip can be added.