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The Central Processing Unit: What Goes on Inside the Computer.

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Presentation on theme: "The Central Processing Unit: What Goes on Inside the Computer."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Central Processing Unit: What Goes on Inside the Computer

3 Objectives Identify the components of the central processing unit and how they work together and interact with memory Describe how program instructions are executed by the computer Explain how data is represented in the computer Describe how the computer finds instructions and data Describe the components of a microcomputer system unit’s motherboard List the measures of computer processing speed and explain the approaches that increase speed

4 The CPU – Central Processing Unit

5 The CPU Converts data into information Control center Set of electronic circuitry that executes stored program instructions Two parts –Control Unit (CU) –Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

6 Control Unit CU Part of the hardware that is in-charge Directs the computer system to execute stored program instructions Communicates with other parts of the hardware

7 Arithmetic / Logic Unit ALU Performs arithmetic operations Performs logical operations

8 Arithmetic Operations Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division

9 Logical Operations Evaluates conditions Makes comparisons Can compare –Numbers –Letters –Special characters

10 Types of Storage Secondary –Data that will eventually be used –Long-term Memory –Data that will be used in the near future –Temporary –Faster access than storage Registers –Data immediately related to the operation being executed –Faster access than memory

11 Measuring Storage Capacity KB – kilobyte 1024 bytes Some diskettes Cache memory MB – megabyte Million bytes RAM GB – gigabyte Billion bytes Hard disks CDs and DVDs TB – terabytes Trillion bytes Large hard disks

12 Memory Many Names Primary storage Primary memory Main storage Internal storage Main memory

13 Main Types of Memory RAM Random Access Memory ROM Read Only Memory

14 RAM Requires current to retain values Volatile Data and instructions can be read and modified Users typically refer to this type of memory

15 What’s in RAM? Operating System Program currently running Data needed by the program Intermediate results waiting to be output

16 ROM Programs and data that are permanently recorded at the factory Read Use Cannot be changed by the user, recorded at factory. Stores data for booting the computer that is activated when computer is turned on Nonvolatile

17 Executing Programs CU gets an instruction and places it in memory CU decodes the instruction CU notifies the appropriate part of hardware to take action Control is transferred to the appropriate part of hardware Task is performed Control is returned to the CU

18 Machine Cycle I-time CU fetches an instruction from memory and puts it into a register CU decodes the instruction and determines the memory location of the data required

19 Machine Cycle E-time Execution –CU moves the data from memory to registers in the ALU –ALU is given control and executes the instruction –Control returns to the CU CU stores the result of the operation in memory or in a register

20 Clock Speed __SPEED______ at which the processor executes instructions. Measured in megahertz or gigahertz(MHz or GHz) The higher the clock speed, the _more_ instructions a processor can perform. It is not practical to compare clock speed between computers, because different models have different clock cycles for same instruction.

21 The Motherboard Microprocessor chip Memory chips Connections to other parts of the hardware Additional chips may be added

22 Storage Devices Hard drive Floppy drive CD-ROM drive DVD-ROM drive

23 Microprocessor CPU etched on a chip Chip size is ¼ x ¼ inch Composed of silicon Contains millions of transistors –Electronic switches that can allow current to pass through

24 Microprocessor Components Control Unit – CU Arithmetic / Logic Unit – ALU Registers System clock

25 Building a Better Microprocessor The faster the computer runs The cheaper it is to make The more reliable it is The more functions that are combined on a microprocessor:

26 Types of Microprocessors Intel Pentium Celeron Xeon and Itanium Intel-compatible Cyrix AMD

27 Speed and Power What makes a computer fast? Microprocessor speed Bus line size Availability of cache Flash memory RISC computers Parallel processing

28 Computer Processing Speed Time to execute an instruction Millisecond Microsecond Nanosecond –Modern computers Picosecond –In the future

29 Microprocessor Speed Clock speed –Megahertz (MHz) –Gigahertz (GHz) Number of instructions per second –Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) Performance of complex mathematical operations –One million floating-point operations per second (Megaflop )

30 Flash Memory Nonvolatile RAM Used in –Cellular phones –Digital cameras –Digital music recorders –PDAs

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