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Conservation Biology 22-24 September 2004 A History of Wildlife Conservation: What have we learned in 150 years?

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Presentation on theme: "Conservation Biology 22-24 September 2004 A History of Wildlife Conservation: What have we learned in 150 years?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Conservation Biology September 2004 A History of Wildlife Conservation: What have we learned in 150 years?

2 History of Conservation Why North America? - Clear examples of our worst and our best - Milestones from 1850 to Philosophies & politics of natural resources Foundations of Conservation Biology: - Biological Diversity: assessment & losses - Sustainable development of human populations

3 European Origins and the American Experience Medieval Europe & hunting preserves. Hunting & use of resources in the colonies. Rise of the common man & the concept of public ownership of natural resources. Six (?) Periods in our history of exploitation and conservation of natural resources in North America.

4 Time Periods in Conservation Prior to 1850: Wilderness and Abundance : Depletion of Natural Resources : Regulation and Preservation : Resource Management : Environmental Concern (?) : Global Environment and Sustainable Development

5 Prior to 1850: Wilderness and Abundance Few people with little impact Subsistence hunting vs. market hunting Values and ethics of natural resources use throughout our history Utilitarian values & views of nature Intrinsic value of the natural world Transcendentalism: H.D. Thoreau - Walden Pond l i t t l e i m p a c t s u b s i s t e n c e h u n t i n g

6 1850 ‑ 1900: Depletion of Resources Immigration from Europe: American population, 1840 = 17 million, 1850 = 23 mill., 1860 = 32 million Railroads and market hunting Deliberate destruction of bison (5 million in 1872) herds and Native Americans Early Restrictions and Organizations 1872 ‑ Yellowstone National Park 1885 ‑ Adirondack Forest Preserve Sierra Club, Founded by John Muir

7 1900 ‑ 1932: Period of Regulation & Preservation The Lacy Act President Theodore Roosevelt (1858 ‑ 1919) Gifford Pinchot and the concept of "Conservation" 1900 ‑ American Society of Foresters Power of the Federal Government in conservation Restrictive regulations ‑ buck laws in Pennsylvania 1916 Migratory Bird Treaty with Canada The early career of Aldo Leopold

8 1900 ‑ 1932: Period of Regulation & Preservation The Lacy Act President Theodore Roosevelt (1858 ‑ 1919) Gifford Pinchot and the concept of "Conservation" 1900 ‑ Am. Society of Foresters Power of the Federal Government in conservation Restrictive regulations ‑ buck laws in Pennsylvania 1916 Migratory Bird Treaty with Canada The early career of Aldo Leopold

9 1933 ‑ 1961 : Period of Resource Management Aldo Leopold Game Management Growing influence Federal Government & FDR 1935 ‑ North American Wildlife Conference First Cooperative Wildlife Research Units (OSU) 1937 ‑ Pittman ‑ Robertson Act The Wildlife Society Growth of scientific wildlife training and research Others?

10 1962 ‑ 1980: Period of Environmental Concern & Legislative Response Rachel Carson Silent Spring New technologies applied ‑ chemical restraint, telemetry, computerized models Toxicology, Bioaccumulation of DDT 1970 ‑ The first Earth Day 1973 ‑ Endangered Species Act & the EPA 1980 ‑ Presidential Election - Other important events?

11 1981 ‑ Present: Global Concerns & Sustainable Development Soule and Wilcox Conservation Biology E.O. Wilson Diversity of Life Concern for global conservation & extinction Earth Summit (Rio 1992) Biological diversity 1997 – Kyoto Protocol (greenhouse gases) Realism and revision of environmental laws Goal of sustainable development 1994 & 2000 Congressional & Presidential Elections

12 1981 ‑ Present: Global Concerns & Sustainable Development Soule and Wilcox Conservation Biology E.O. Wilson Diversity of Life Concern for global conservation & extinction Earth Summit (Rio 1992) Biological diversity 1997 – Kyoto Protocol (greenhouse gases) Realism and revision of environmental laws Goal of sustainable development 1994 & 2000 Congressional & Presidential Elections

13 What have we learned ( )? Natural resources are public property Personal leadership & public concern periodically drives governmental action Issues change but underlying forces and views of nature (utilitarian vs. intrinsic value) remain. Fundamental issue: Human population growth and resource consumption. What should we do in 2004 & the future?


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