2Key ConceptsFour Major “Revolutions” in Human CultureU.S. Environmental HistoryTribal and Frontier EraEarly Conservation EraThe Environmental EraAldo Leopold’s Land Ethic
3Cultural Changes and the Environment: Hunter-Gatherer Culture Hunter-gatherersNomadic: seasonal movementLimited and local environmental impactGenerally work with natural processes
4Cultural Changes and the Environment: The Agricultural Revolution AgricultureSlash and burn/ shifting cultivation (See Fig. 2-3 p. 25)Essentially sustainable resource useIncreased environmental impactRefer to Connections on p. 26
5Cultural Changes and the Environment: The Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution (mid-1700’s)Shift to dependence on non-renewable resourcesDramatic increase in environmental impactRefer to Connections on p. 27
6Information Revolution Cultural Changes and the Environment: The Information Revolution/GlobalizationInformation RevolutionRate of information increase and speed of communicationGlobalizationDecrease in cultural diversity
7Effect of Cultural Changes on Human Population Size Number of Humans?Continued growthPopulationstabilizationcrash(10,000 years)(100,000 years)(1 million years)Tool-making revolutionAgricultural revolutionIndustrial and information revolutionsTimeFig. 2.2, p. 24
8Environmental History of the United States: The Tribal and Frontier Eras Tribal Era: Native AmericansNative Americans generally low-impact hunter-gather or agricultural societiesFrontier Environmental Worldview: European Settlement ( )Significant impact as wilderness frontier was “tamed”
9Environmental History of the United States: The Early Conservation Era Period:Concern over resource usePreservation of public landsPublic health initiativesEnvironmental restoration projects
10Important Figures During The Early Conservation Era Henry David ThoreauGeorge Perkins MarshJohn MuirTheodore RooseveltAlice HamiltonFranklin Roosevelt
11Henry David Thoreau American author, poet, abolitionist, naturalist. his book Walden – simple living in natural surroundings
12George Perkins Marsh America's first environmentalist Man and Nature - constituted an early work of ecologyDeforestation could lead to desertification.
13John Muir Scottish-born American naturalist Advocated preservation of wilderness in the USHe petitioned the U.S. Congress for the National Park Bill that was passed in 1899
14First woman appointed to the faculty of Harvard University Pioneer in toxicologyCritic of adding tetraethyl lead to gasoline.
15Environmental History of the United States: The Environmental Era Period:The environmental movementThe science of ecologySpaceship Earth worldview1980’s: anti-environmental movement1990’s: environmental awareness
16Important Figures During The Environmental Era Rachel Carson: Silent Spring (1962) (See Individuals Matter on p. 36)Richard Nixon: EPA; ESAJimmy Carter: DOE, SuperfundRonald Reagan: anti-environmentalistBill Clinton: environmental concerns a priority
17Case Study: Aldo Leopold and His Land Ethic Individuals are interdependentEthics: respect for landShift from conqueror to memberProblems arise when land viewed as a commodityPreservation of the integrity, stability, and beauty of land is right