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Environmental History: Learning from the Past CHAPTER 2 APES Ms. Miller CHAPTER 2 APES Ms. Miller.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental History: Learning from the Past CHAPTER 2 APES Ms. Miller CHAPTER 2 APES Ms. Miller."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental History: Learning from the Past CHAPTER 2 APES Ms. Miller CHAPTER 2 APES Ms. Miller

2 Key Concepts  Three Major “Revolutions” in Human Culture U.S. Environmental History  Tribal and Frontier Era  Early Conservation Era  The Environmental Era  Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic

3 Cultural Changes and the Environment: Hunter-Gatherer Culture  Hunter-gatherers—earliest humans until about 12,000 years ago  Usually limited environmental impact  Nomadic: seasonal movement

4 Cultural Changes and the Environment: The Agricultural Revolution  Agriculture  Slash and burn/ shifting cultivation (See Fig. 2-2 p. 22)  Essentially sustainable resource use Believed to have developed in Southeast Asia, northeast Africa and Mexico

5 Refer to Trade-Offs in Fig. 2-3 on p. 23  Increased environmental impact as agriculture grew and spread

6 Cultural Changes and the Environment: The Industrial-Medical Revolution  Industrial Revolution (mid-1700’s)  Shift to dependence on non-renewable resources

7 Refer to Trade-offs in Fig. 2-4 on p. 23  Dramatic increase in environmental impact Salmon used to travel up the river Thames, through London, to their breeding grounds in Berkshire. However, the industrial revolution and the pollution that accompanied it killed them all off by 1833.

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9 Cultural Changes and the Environment: The Information/Globalization Revolution  Information Revolution  Rate of information increase and speed of communication

10 Refer to Trade-offs in Fig. 2-5 on p. 24  Decrease in cultural diversity  Globalization

11 Environmental History of the United States: The Tribal and Frontier Eras  Tribal Era: Native Americans  Native Americans caused some extinctions, but generally were low-impact hunter-gather or agricultural societies

12  Significant impact as wilderness frontier was “tamed”  Frontier Environmental Worldview: European Settlement ( )

13 Environmental History of the United States: The Early Conservation Era  Period:  Concern over resource use  Preservation of public lands  Public health initiatives  Environmental restoration projects

14 Important Figures During The Early Conservation Era  Henry David Thoreau—wrote “Life in the Woods” while living on Walden Pond, was a naturalist who tried to live life simply

15  George Perkins Marsh— scientist and member of Congress, wrote “Man and Nature” to show need for conservation

16  John Muir— explorer, geologist and naturalist who founded the Sierra Club and established Yosemite National Park. Spent 22 years as lobbyist for conservation.

17  Theodore Roosevelt— US president that gave land for refuges/reserves, “Golden Age of Conservation.” He was also an explorer, writer, naturalist, and birdwatcher

18  Gifford Pinchot—first chief of the U.S. Forest Service; pioneered scientific management of forests Gifford Pinchot State Park; Pennsylvania

19  Franklin Roosevelt-established Civilian Conservation Corps

20 Environmental History of the United States: The Environmental Era  Period: 1960-Today  The environmental movement  The science of ecology  Spaceship Earth worldview  1980’s: backlash against environmentalism  1990’s: environmental awareness

21 Important Figures During The Environmental Era – Part 1  Rachel Carson: biologist, marine biologist, environmentalist: The Sea Around Us (1951) Silent Spring (1962) (See Individuals Matter on p. 27)

22  Richard Nixon: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Endangered Species Act (ESA); and the Clean Air Act

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24  Jimmy Carter: Department of Energy Superfund (for hazardous waste cleanup) Brownfields are industrial or commercial sites that are idle, closed, or underused because of real or perceived environmental pollution. All Superfund sites are Brownfields.

25 Important Figures During The Environmental Era – Part 1  Ronald Reagan— angered environmentalists by appointing those opposed to environmental laws; led to increased membership into conservation groups because of angered citizens

26  Bill Clinton—appointed respected environmentalist to key positions; vetoed most of the anti-environmental bills

27  George W. Bush—appointed those opposed to environmental laws and wanted to weaken existing laws; did not consult with environmental groups; withdrew US from Kyoto Treaty (global warming)

28 Case Study: Aldo Leopold and His Land Ethic

29 Leopold’s Land Ethic  Individuals are interdependent  Ethics: respect for land  Shift from conqueror to member  Problems arise when land viewed as a commodity  Preservation of the integrity, stability, and beauty of land is right

30  Anything is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.


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