Presentation on theme: "Environmental History: Learning from the Past CHAPTER 2 APES Ms. Miller CHAPTER 2 APES Ms. Miller."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental History: Learning from the Past CHAPTER 2 APES Ms. Miller CHAPTER 2 APES Ms. Miller
Key Concepts Three Major “Revolutions” in Human Culture U.S. Environmental History Tribal and Frontier Era Early Conservation Era The Environmental Era Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic
Cultural Changes and the Environment: Hunter-Gatherer Culture Hunter-gatherers—earliest humans until about 12,000 years ago Usually limited environmental impact Nomadic: seasonal movement
Cultural Changes and the Environment: The Agricultural Revolution Agriculture Slash and burn/ shifting cultivation (See Fig. 2-2 p. 22) Essentially sustainable resource use Believed to have developed in Southeast Asia, northeast Africa and Mexico
Refer to Trade-Offs in Fig. 2-3 on p. 23 Increased environmental impact as agriculture grew and spread
Cultural Changes and the Environment: The Industrial-Medical Revolution Industrial Revolution (mid-1700’s) Shift to dependence on non-renewable resources
Refer to Trade-offs in Fig. 2-4 on p. 23 Dramatic increase in environmental impact Salmon used to travel up the river Thames, through London, to their breeding grounds in Berkshire. However, the industrial revolution and the pollution that accompanied it killed them all off by 1833.
Cultural Changes and the Environment: The Information/Globalization Revolution Information Revolution Rate of information increase and speed of communication
Refer to Trade-offs in Fig. 2-5 on p. 24 Decrease in cultural diversity Globalization
Environmental History of the United States: The Tribal and Frontier Eras Tribal Era: Native Americans Native Americans caused some extinctions, but generally were low-impact hunter-gather or agricultural societies
Significant impact as wilderness frontier was “tamed” Frontier Environmental Worldview: European Settlement ( )
Environmental History of the United States: The Early Conservation Era Period: Concern over resource use Preservation of public lands Public health initiatives Environmental restoration projects
Important Figures During The Early Conservation Era Henry David Thoreau—wrote “Life in the Woods” while living on Walden Pond, was a naturalist who tried to live life simply
George Perkins Marsh— scientist and member of Congress, wrote “Man and Nature” to show need for conservation
John Muir— explorer, geologist and naturalist who founded the Sierra Club and established Yosemite National Park. Spent 22 years as lobbyist for conservation.
Theodore Roosevelt— US president that gave land for refuges/reserves, “Golden Age of Conservation.” He was also an explorer, writer, naturalist, and birdwatcher
Gifford Pinchot—first chief of the U.S. Forest Service; pioneered scientific management of forests Gifford Pinchot State Park; Pennsylvania
Franklin Roosevelt-established Civilian Conservation Corps
Environmental History of the United States: The Environmental Era Period: 1960-Today The environmental movement The science of ecology Spaceship Earth worldview 1980’s: backlash against environmentalism 1990’s: environmental awareness
Important Figures During The Environmental Era – Part 1 Rachel Carson: biologist, marine biologist, environmentalist: The Sea Around Us (1951) Silent Spring (1962) (See Individuals Matter on p. 27)
Richard Nixon: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Endangered Species Act (ESA); and the Clean Air Act
Jimmy Carter: Department of Energy Superfund (for hazardous waste cleanup) Brownfields are industrial or commercial sites that are idle, closed, or underused because of real or perceived environmental pollution. All Superfund sites are Brownfields.
Important Figures During The Environmental Era – Part 1 Ronald Reagan— angered environmentalists by appointing those opposed to environmental laws; led to increased membership into conservation groups because of angered citizens
Bill Clinton—appointed respected environmentalist to key positions; vetoed most of the anti-environmental bills
George W. Bush—appointed those opposed to environmental laws and wanted to weaken existing laws; did not consult with environmental groups; withdrew US from Kyoto Treaty (global warming)
Case Study: Aldo Leopold and His Land Ethic
Leopold’s Land Ethic Individuals are interdependent Ethics: respect for land Shift from conqueror to member Problems arise when land viewed as a commodity Preservation of the integrity, stability, and beauty of land is right
Anything is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.