Presentation on theme: "Genetically modified organisms or Transgenic Organisms - organisms that have foreign DNA (genes) introduced into them Used to increase survival rates Introducing."— Presentation transcript:
Genetically modified organisms or Transgenic Organisms - organisms that have foreign DNA (genes) introduced into them Used to increase survival rates Introducing foreign DNA into bacteria, plants and animals Used in research and pharmaceuticals GMO’s
Genetic Engineering Selects useful traits from a range of variation. Artificial selection and breeding to acquire beneficial traits. Breeding cattle, dogs, corn. Now molecular biologists can introduce genes into all kinds of organisms
Molecular Biologists, know that genes are chains of nucleotides With this knowledge, they are able to move genes around and cut and paste pieces of DNA from different organisms.
Plasmid DNAPlasmid DNA + gene How might we cut open the plasmid to get the gene in? Plasmid DNA + gene Bacterial cell + your plasmid! What happens every time the bacterial cell divides and replicates its own DNA? Gene you are interested in + Bacterial cell +
Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA is any DNA molecule consisting of two or more DNA segments that are not normally found together in nature. Sometimes called designer genes. Joins together pieces of DNA in combinations that benefit scientists.
DNAse and RNAse are enzymes that actually cut the bonds between nucleotides in DNA or RNA. Restriction enzymes are special DNAses that cut DNA at specific locations. For instance the EcoRI binds to and cuts DNA wherever it finds the sequence GAATTC. This results in many fragments with ends that can be identified and are complimentary (sticky).
DNA ligase is an enzyme that is used to link together separate pieces of DNA into one continuous strand. For example, to make the hormone insulin, researchers inserted a sequence coding for human insulin next to the operator and the promoter for β-galactosidase from E. coli. When the bacteria was exposed to lactose, the bacteria produced insulin
Rat Insulin Gene Example
Green Fluorescent Protein Found in one species of jelly fish (Aequorea victoria) GFP started to be used in biology in the 1990s Nobel Prize in 2008! Great website: http://www.conncoll.edu/ccac ad/zimmer/GFP-ww/GFP- 1.htm
So what can we use GFP for? “Tag” specific cells and/or specific proteins we are interested in looking at
Interesting Transgenic Animals!
Emerald Sea Slug Naturally-occuring! Sequence identical to an algal photosynthetic gene in its genome o Gene somehow integrated into the slug’s DNA!
Spider Goat Spider silk o Stronger than steel! o Really flexible Goats have spider silk gene inserted into their DNA Silk is harvested from the goat’s __________
Super Muscle Trout Fish have 20-25% more muscle growth Gene inserted that makes a protein that inhibits another protein that SLOWS muscle growth
Brainbow Mouse Randomly expressing different ratios of red, green, and blue derivatives of GFP
Gene therapy Use genes to try to treat a disease o Protein function has somehow been changed o Gene therapy tries to fix that! Still a very risky procedure!