2 3.3.2Summarize how transgenic organisms are engineered to benefit society.
3 Manipulating DNAGenetic engineering is the science of manipulating DNA for the benefit of society.Transgenic organisms contain recombinant DNA which is made by connecting fragments of DNA from different sources.
4 Types of Transgenic Organisms Scientists can essentially make any living organisms’ offspring a transgenic organism.Animal DNA can be inserted into other animals, plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria. Vice versa any of those organisms’ DNA can be inserted to other organisms of the same type or others.
5 Common PurposesMass producing functional proteins to treat genetic diseases.Creating organisms that are able to survive in different types of habitats.Creating plants resistant to pests for increase in yield.Increasing the development of desired traits in organisms.Transgenic organisms typically look the same as regular organisms.
6 Use of DNA PlasmidsUsing plasmid DNA from prokaryotes is common for mass producing human genes to treat disease such as diabetes.Bacteria reproduce asexually and fast.
7 Steps in Creating a Recombinant DNA Plasmid 1. Restriction enzymes cut DNA of both DNA strands. They are bacterial proteins that have the ability to cut both strands of the DNA molecule at a specific nucleotide sequence.2. The foreign DNA is connected to the plasmid DNA by another enzyme called DNA ligase.
8 Steps in Creating a Recombinant DNA Plasmid 3. Only bacterial plasmids that incorporate the foreign DNA survive when placed on a medium with an antibiotic.
9 DNA->RNA-> Protein Gene ExpressionDNA->RNA-> ProteinThe transgenic organism is a success if it creates the proteins from the organism in which the DNA came from.