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Biotechnology. Any process that uses our understanding of living things to create a product.

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Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology. Any process that uses our understanding of living things to create a product."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biotechnology

2 Any process that uses our understanding of living things to create a product

3 Genetic Engineering The process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms

4 Genetic engineering can be accomplished through transformation. Transformation is when a cell takes in DNA from outside the cell. This DNA becomes part of the cell’s DNA. This can be accomplished with the help of bacteria.

5 Bacterial Transformation The changing of one strain of bacteria into another strain

6 Plasmid : a circular piece of DNA found in bacteria F+ bacterium contains a plasmid F- bacterium does not contain a plasmid

7 Steps of Bacterial Transformation 1-Remove the plasmid from the bacterium.

8 Steps of Bacterial Transformation 2-Isolate the gene of interest. A gene of interest is a piece of DNA that codes for a protein we want more of

9 Steps of Bacterial Transformation 3-Open the plasmid by cutting it with a restriction enzyme This leaves “sticky ends” Which need to be the complement of the sticky ends left on the DNA fragment you want to insert.

10 Sticky Ends

11 The restriction enzyme EcoR1 cuts the DNA at the sequence GAATTC, between the G and the A

12 Sticky Ends


14 Steps of Bacterial Transformation 4-Insert the gene of interest

15 Steps of Bacterial Transformation 5-Insert the plasmid with recombinant DNA into a new bacterium. Recombinant DNA: DNA produced by combining DNA from different organisms

16 Steps of Bacterial Transformation 6-The bacteria reproduces itself and the plasmid. All descendants express the inserted gene

17 Bacterial Transformation

18 Other Types of Transformation Plants: -Use bacteria that insert their plasmid into plant cells -removing cell walls sometimes allows plant cells to take up foreign DNA on their own

19 Other Types of Transformation Animals: -Many egg cells are large enough that DNA can be directly injected

20 Genetically Engineered Products

21 Production of Human Insulin Insulin regulates the blood sugar level. The gene for human insulin is inserted into yeast or bacteria, from which large quantities of the human insulin are manufactured

22 Golden Rice Undernourished people in poorer countries may have blindness caused by a lack of vitamin A Contains beta-carotene, which forms Vitamin A

23 Golden Rice Genes for making beta-carotene are taken from daffodils and inserted into the genome of rice

24 Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone rBGH is a genetically engineered version of a hormone, which is found in the pituitary gland of cows and controls milk production rBGH can increase cows’ milk production by as much as 20-30%

25 Spider Silk Elastic, light weight fiber 5 times stronger than steel One method involves inserting the gene from a weaving spider into a fertilized goat egg. The resultant “spider-goat” produces milk that can be manufactured into strong fibers.

26 Spider Silk To make flak jackets, rope, textiles, sutures, artificial tendons, and bandages for burn victims

27 Glowing Organisms Genes that make jellyfish glow are inserted into other organisms The organism glows under UV light

28 Glowing organisms Extra credit if you research the importance of this type of organism.

29 Bt is a bacterium that is toxic to some insects. In the lab, the gene that produces the toxic effect is inserted into the DNA of plants Bt crops produce an insecticide protein thousands of times more powerful than the chemical spray insecticides Bt Crops

30 Transgenic Organisms : Any organism whose genome incorporates and expresses genes from the same or a different species Genetically modified products: Altering the DNA of an organism to get it to express different traits.

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