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CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 1 CONTRACEPTION AND PLANNING FOR PREGNANCY Contraceptive methods for family planning, the health benefits and risk factors.

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Presentation on theme: "CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 1 CONTRACEPTION AND PLANNING FOR PREGNANCY Contraceptive methods for family planning, the health benefits and risk factors."— Presentation transcript:

1 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 1 CONTRACEPTION AND PLANNING FOR PREGNANCY Contraceptive methods for family planning, the health benefits and risk factors associated with birth control choices and pregnancy


3 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 3 ABSTINENCE This is the only sure method of birth control to prevent an unintended pregnancy or unwanted STD’s Abstinence from intercourse does not necessarily equate with being nonsexual It is possible to attain a level of intimacy without risking pregnancy Many young adults decide to delay sexual intercourse for a variety of reasons

4 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 4 FERTILITY AWARENESS This method helps women understand their menstrual cycle better It requires a high level of motivation and cooperation by both partners These methods have a high user failure rates Not recommended for couples who could not tolerate a pregnancy Offer no protection against STD’s

5 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 5 CALENDAR METHOD Also referred to as the rhythm method This requires abstinence during ovulation Should be supplemented with another option if pregnancy cannot be tolerated This could be effective if a women knew the exact day of her ovulation To be safest abstinence is necessary from day11to 21 of woman’s cycle The egg can by fertilized anytime between the release by the ovary and its exit from the fallopian tube There is a 30% failure rate

6 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 6 BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE METHOD Designed to determine when a woman is ovulating BBT drops slightly 1 to 2 days before ovulation Then rises sharply by approximately ½-1 degrees during ovulation Sexual activity should be stopped for 3 to 4 days after temperature elevates Intercourse before ovulation carries a greater risk than post ovulation Sperm can remain viable for up to 72 hours

7 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 7 SYMPTOTHERMAL METHOD Combination of BBT and cervical mucus monitoring During ovulation mucus becomes watery Sexual intercourse should be avoided until mucous thickens or dries This is works better than the calendar method It has a 20% failure rate

8 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 8 WITHDRAWAL Also referred to as coitus interruptus Leads to many unintended pregnancies Pre ejaculate carries sperm that may be released into the vagina before withdrawal This method requires an inordinate amount of self control by both partners Has an extremely high failure rate

9 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 9 BARRIER METHODS Barrier methods have become increasingly popular because of the protection they provide against HIV and other STD’s High failure rates among young women SPERMACIDES CONDOMS DIAPHRAGMS CERVICLE CAPS

10 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 10 SPERMACIDES Are a chemical method of contraceptive use Come in a variety foams, creams, gels, and suppositories Prevent contraception by killing sperm before they reach uterus Serve as a lubricant Can be used alone or with another barrier method Highly effective when used with a condom Contain nonoxynol-9 which is somewhat effective in preventing gonorrhea, HIV, Chlamydia, herpes simplex 2, Need to be reapplied before every sexual act to insure effectiveness

11 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 11 MALE CONDOM Increased use of latex types Protect against HIV, herpes simplex 2, Chlamydia, and cytomegalovirus Reduce transmission of gonorrhea, HBV2, trichomonas vaginalis Is 86-90% effective when used alone and 98% effective when used with spermicide Use can cause possible allergic reaction

12 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 12 FEMALE CONDOM One size fits all barrier method Consists of a pre-lubricated pouch 6” in length with two flexible rings One ring is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix The other ring partially covers the labia Lab tests demonstrate that the HIV and other STD viruses cannot permeate the polyurethane pouch Controlled by the woman Failure rate is @ 26% usually user failure

13 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 13 DIAPHRAGM An oval dome shaped device with a flexible spring at the outer edge Needs to be fitted by a clinician A spermicide is applied into the dome and a small amount is spread around the rim Should be left in place for 6-8 hrs after intercourse and then removed Failure rate ranges from 3-16%

14 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 14 CERVICAL CAP It is designed to fit tightly over the cervix Should be filled with spermicide before intercourse A clinician must fit the cap to fit each woman Can remain in place up to 48 hrs. with no additional spermicide The smaller size makes it more difficult to ensure coverage of cervix

15 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 15 HORMONAL METHODS THEY INCLUDE: Oral contraceptives Norplant Depo-Provera They provide no protection against HIV and other STD’s

16 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 16 ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES They are the second most popular form of birth control in the US Most women the pill with both synthetic estrogen and a derivative of progesterone A progestin only pill is available to women who cannot take estrogen They provide protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer Risks of ectopic pregnancy and PID are lowered Reduced menstrual flow with shorter periods Side effects include nausea, breast soreness, fluid retention, breast cancer, CVD, and liver cancer

17 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 17 NORPLANT A progestin only implant (levonorgestrel) Consists of flexible, matchstick-like capsules filled with LVG Inserted under the skin of the upper arm Dissipate after 5 years and need to be removed and replaced Suppresses ovulation Major side effects include irregular menstrual periods Headaches, nausea, dizziness, acne, hair loss, increase in facial or body hair and breast tenderness

18 CONTRACEPTION AND PREGNANCY 18 DEPO-PROVERA Most widely used progestin injection Injected into the gluteal or deltoid muscle every 3 months Like Norplant is has a very low failure rate and also suppresses ovulation Side effects include amenorrhea, weight gain, headache, nervousness, dizziness, stomach cramps and decreased sex drive

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