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CONTRACEPTION. Who needs contraception?  62 million U.S. women in childbearing years (15-44)  Of these 7 out of 10 are sexually active and do not want.

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Presentation on theme: "CONTRACEPTION. Who needs contraception?  62 million U.S. women in childbearing years (15-44)  Of these 7 out of 10 are sexually active and do not want."— Presentation transcript:


2 Who needs contraception?  62 million U.S. women in childbearing years (15-44)  Of these 7 out of 10 are sexually active and do not want to become pregnant  Typical U.S. woman wants 2 children and therefore must use contraceptives for 3 decades of her life Source: Alan Guttmacher Institute 2006

3 Who uses contraception?  98% of U.S. women who have had sex have used at least one form of contraception  89% of women who do not want to become pregnant are using some form of contraception Method choice varies by age  For women younger than 30, the pill is the leading method  By the time women reach 35, sterilization is more common Source: Alan Guttmacher Institute 2006

4 Survey of 38,109 U.S. women

5 What do college students use for contraception ?

6 Form of Contraceptive Used by Illinois College Females the Last Time They Had Sexual Intercourse

7 Form of Contraceptive Used by Illinois College Males the Last Time They Had Sexual Intercourse

8 Some facts about common forms of contraception.....

9 Depo-Provera Depo-Provera is a synthetic hormone that is injected into the buttock or arm every 12 weeks (3 Months). The hormone keeps the ovaries from releasing eggs. It also thickens the cervical mucus. This keeps sperm from joining with an egg. Typical failure rate = 3%

10 The Intrauterine Device (IUD) IUDs are small devices made of plastic that contain copper or a natural hormone. IUDs usually work by preventing fertilization of the egg. They also may work by affecting the way sperm or eggs move or by affecting the lining of the uterus in ways that prevent implantation. Typical failure rate = 0.1- 0.8%

11 The Pill Combined pills keep the ovaries from releasing eggs (ovulation). Mini- pills can also prevent ovulation. But they work mainly by thickening the cervical mucus. This prevents the sperm from joining with the egg. Mini-pills may also prevent fertilized eggs from implanting in the uterus. Typical failure rate = 8%

12 Birth Control Patch Typical failure rate = 1.3% The contraceptive patch contains hormones similar to those in birth control pills. You must change your patch once a week for three consecutive weeks. You do not need to apply a patch during the fourth week.

13 The Ring The vaginal contraceptive ring consists of a flexible, transparent, colorless vaginal ring about 2.1 inches in diameter containing the hormones etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol, which are similar to the active ingredients in some oral contraceptives. After the ring is inserted, it releases a continuous low dose of the hormones. A new ring is used each month for continuous contraception A woman inserts the ring herself, and it should remain in the vagina for three weeks. She then removes the ring for one week during which she will have her menstrual period.. Typical failure rate = 5%

14 The Condom  A barrier method  Has added protection if used with spermicide  use water-based lubricants only  Latex May Break especially with age..  Also provides protection against STD’s Typical failure rate = 15%

15 Diaphram Diaphragms and cervical caps are soft rubber barriers that are intended to fit securely over the cervix. Both are used with a spermicide cream or jelly. Each blocks the entrance to the uterus, and the jelly or cream immobilizes sperm, preventing it from joining the egg. Cervical Cap The Diaphragm & Cervical Cap Typical failure rate =16-32%

16 Application of Diaphragm

17 Female Condom Typical failure rate = 21%

18 Foams, Jelly, Contraceptive Sponge, Suppository  contain spermicide  barrier method  must be reapplied for each subsequent intercourse Typical failure rate = 29%

19 Fertility Awareness Methods  trying to predict peak fertility times & avoiding intercourse during those times  three methods of prediction  basal body temperature method  cervical mucus method  calendar or "rhythm" method Typical failure rate = 25%

20 Emergency Contraception  Post-Coital Contraceptives –morning after pill (e.g., Preven & Plan B) - Emergency contraception (EC) consists of the same hormones found in ordinary birth control pills. –within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse –Side-effects: nausea, vomiting, and cramping –20-25% become pregnant  Like regular contraceptive pills, Plan B generally acts by preventing ovulation or fertilization, according to the F.D.A. Plan B may in rare circumstances prevent a fertilized egg from becoming implanted, something abortion opponents decry. But regular oral contraceptives do that, too.

21 Emergency Contraception  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced on August 24, 2006 the approval of Plan B as an over-the- counter (OTC) option for women aged 18 and older. Plan B will remain available as a prescription-only product for women age 17 and under.  As much as 43% of the decline in abortion between 1994 and 2000 can be attributed to the use of emergency contraception.

22 Surgical Sterilization  For Males a Vasectomy cuts and ties the vas deferens to prevent sperm from entering the reproductive pathway.  For Females, a Tubal Ligation, cuts and ties the fallopian tube to prevent the egg from reaching the uterus.  Both procedures may be reversed with limited success and is very costly! Even these procedures are not considered 100% effective since there have been pregnancies in extremely small number of cases


24 Abstinence  The only 100% effective method of Birth Control short of Castration!  The only 100% effective method of Avoiding a STD!  Completely Safe, No Cost, No Chance of Errors  Parent Approved!!  No Morning after Guilt or Regret!

25 Methods of Birth Control - typical failure rates 0.00% - Abstinence 0.15% - Sterilization - Males 0.50% - Sterilization - Females 27.0% - Withdrawal 85.0% - No Method

26 life-time failure rate LTF = 1 - (1 - AFR) years pill (8%) LTF (pill) = 1 - (1 -.08) 30 = 92% condom (15%) LTF (condom) = 1 - (1 -.15) 30 > 99% 30 years of reproduction ( age 17-47) ALMOST ALL COUPLES WILL ULTIMATELY HAVE A PREGNANCY EVEN IF THEY USE BIRTH CONTROL !!!!!!

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