Presentation on theme: "The “war to end all wars” ends. How World War I Comes to an End? 1917: Russia signs the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty with Germany pulling out of the war."— Presentation transcript:
The “war to end all wars” ends
How World War I Comes to an End? 1917: Russia signs the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty with Germany pulling out of the war. Russia gave up large territories of land to Germany - Finland, Poland, Ukraine, and the Baltic States. Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allies in November of Germany loses the Western Front The help of the eager-for-action U.S. doughboys against the low-morale German troops forced them to surrender to end the war on 11/11/18 – Armistice Day.
War Deaths by Country
Results of the War After 4 years of fighting front lines remain stationary. Very high casualty rates. – British 885,138 soldiers killed, 1,663,435 soldiers wounded – French 1,397,800 soldiers killed, 4,266,000 soldiers wounded – Italy 651,010 soldiers killed, 953,886 soldiers wounded – United States 116,708 soldiers killed, 205,690 soldiers wounded – Germany 2, soldiers killed, 4,247,143 soldiers wounded – Overall Casualties 8 million killed, 21 million wounded, 3.6 million missing in action (presumed dead); numbers vary GRAND TOTAL: most estimates end around 37 MILLION PEOPLE (soldier and civilian) killed, wounded, or missing Population of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina today: Between 16 and 18 million.
Background Fighting ends on November 11, 1918 with signing of an armistice (A temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement between opponents, a truce). Allies gather at Versailles in January to begin peace negotiations. – Central Powers not invited Negotiations took 6 months.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points A plan drawn up by W.Wilson that included 14 specific strategies for ending the war and making peace. Was very lenient on conquered countries. Wanted to establish a League of Nations to oversee and enforce the terms of surrender. 1. It would be an international organization with the purpose of preserving peace throughout the world. 2. Every nation would have an equal vote. 3. Every nation in the world would be a member, and each nation would have an equal vote. 4. Any controversy within the League would be turned over to the Central Council: France, Britain, Italy, Japan, the U.S., and five small nations.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points Paris Peace Conference (Versailles, 1919) “Peace without Victory” No secret treaties Freedom of the seas Free trade Reduction of military arms End colonization/imperialism League of Nations G Britain/France want heavy reparations for Germany No Established (Wilson would not compromise on this)
The Big Four David Lloyd George of Britain Vitorio Orlando of Italy Georges Clemenceau of France Woodrow Wilson of the United States
Conflicting Interests David Lloyd George – Supports reparations from Germany – Supports naval blockade of German ports – Supports secret treaties – Wants to maintain the British Empire – Wants to make sure Germany becomes a major trade partner with Britain
Georges Clemenceau Sought revenge against Germany – Wanted to permanently cripple the military and economy – Wanted to reduce size of German military – Ban pre-war politicians from seeking office – Sought to blockade ports in order to control trade – Wanted control of factories and resources in Ruhr Valley. – Wanted the Germans to pay for all damages during the war
Woodrow Wilson Sought to end secret treaties Wanted to create a “League of Nations.” Wanted all nations to reduce sizes of military “self-determination” – People of same nationality should be allowed to govern themselves. – Sought to eliminate the problem of nationalism
6 months later… Versailles Treaty eventually agreed upon by allies Very harsh terms against Germany – Forced to accept sole responsibility for the entire war. – Forced to pay reparations to allies Estimated at around $33 billion in modern currency Also paid for with coal, steel, and agricultural products to avoid hyperinflation – German Emperor Wilhelm II accused of war crimes along with many other officials
Territorial Restrictions Loses 13% of it’s territory. Results in the loss of almost 20% of coalfields – Many placed under the direct control of France Loses half of its iron and steel industry Loses all overseas colonies in Africa and Asia Annexation of other countries prohibited.
Military Restrictions Restricted to men Manufacturing, importing, and exporting weapons prohibited. Tanks, artillery, poison gas, military aircraft, and submarines prohibited. The creation of an air force prohibited Navy limited to sailors, 6 battleships, and no submarines
Consequences for the rest of Europe Germans resent provisions of treaty. – Leads to inflation and debt in Germany, eventually contributes to Great Depression. Many new nations created, or old nations freed due to Wilson’s “self-determination” provisions in the treaty. – Austro-Hungarian Empire broken up League of Nations created – Responsible for the administration of many territories through a system of mandates Territories governed by nations belonging to League of Nations – For instance, France and Britain Mandates to be given independence when local government ready for independence (will not be enforced)
Treaty of Versailles Wilson would negotiate the treaty in Paris without much input from the new majority Republican Congress. France and Britain would not approve most of Wilson’s 14 Points. They felt that they were too lenient. The League of Nations was approved to enforce the terms of the surrender. It was signed in Paris, France on June 28, 1919 officially ending WWI. The U.S. Congress did not approve of the treaty or the League of Nations, so they refused to sign it. Why? Because they felt that it did not benefit the U.S. 1. A group of thirty-nine Republican senators led by Henry Cabot Lodge opposed the League of Nations, citing several flaws in its structure. - Reservationists (Lodge) - willing to pass the treaty if changes are made. - Irreconcilables - no treaty, no way! 2. The Senators believed that the U.S. should remain “isolationist” after the war.
3. In March of 1920, the Senate defeated the vote for approval of the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. Reasons Why? - Upset with Wilson for not including them in making the treaty. - Fear of involvement on war without Congressional declaration of war. - Fear of foreign control of military decision-making. - Questioned using “War to prevent War.” - The refusal of Wilson to compromise on Article X (ten) - it made members promise to protect each other’s territorial integrity against aggressors. Congressmen did not want to be pulled into foreign conflicts. Results of the Treaty of Versailles A. Kaiser Wilhelm II (German leader) was forced to give up his throne and he fled to Holland for the next 23 years. B. Germany had to pay back $33 Billion in war reparations. C. Germany had to break up all Alliances with other countries. D. Germany had to admit to a “Guilt Clause.” E. Created a League of Nations. F. Italy gained very little, refused to sign a treaty. G. Germany establishes a Republican form of government.
The Ottoman Empire under League of Nations mandates Many new states created, supposedly based on nationality. Placed under the protection of European nations until they were ready for independence – Syria under French control – Iraq and Palestine under British control New nation of Turkey created.
British reactions to treaty Britain gained some German colonies and the German navy was destroyed but : – Lloyd George thought the treaty was too harsh, saying: "We shall have to fight another war again in 25 years time.“ – The British diplomat Harold Nicolson called it: "neither just nor wise" and the people who made it: "stupid". – The economist John Maynard Keynes prophesied that reparations would ruin the economy of Europe.
French reactions to treaty French Reactions to the Treaty – France got Alsace-Lorraine, German colonies, harsh reparations and a tiny German army but : Many French people wanted an independent, not a demilitarized, Rhineland. Most French people did not think the League of Nations would protect them against Germany.
American reaction to Versailles Treaty Woodrow Wilson got the League of Nations, and new nation-states were set up in Eastern Europe but: – Wilson thought the treaty was far too harsh. – Self-determination proved impossible to implement -Example: Yugoslavia did not survive as a united country, and Czechoslovakia was annexed in stages by the Nazis in 1938 and – Many Americans did not want to get involved in Europe, and in 1920 the American Senate refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles, or join the League of Nations.
9 New Nations Created: Nations formed out of Russian Lands 1.Finland 2. Estonia 3. Latvia 4. Lithuania 5. Poland Nations formed from Austria-Hungary 1. Czechoslovakia 2. Yugoslavia 3. Austria-Hungary split From Germany 1.Lost all conquered territories 2.Gave Alsace-Lorraine back to France. Map Changes In Europe