WWI was the bloodiest war in history up to that time. Deaths numbered 22 million-about half were civilians. 20 million people were wounded & 10 million became refugees. The US lost 48,000 men in battle, with another 62,000 dying of disease. More than 200,000 Americans were wounded.
Great Britain: David Lloyd George “make Germany pay!” Great Britain: David Lloyd George “make Germany pay!” Italy: Vittorio Oralando Austrian land claimsItaly: Vittorio Oralando Austrian land claims France: Georges Clemenceau prevent future invasionsFrance: Georges Clemenceau prevent future invasions United States: Woodrow Wilson post war peaceUnited States: Woodrow Wilson post war peace The BIG FOUR
Wilson’s Goals The Goals of France and Great Britain
WILSON’S PEACE PLAN “Fourteen Points” - January 1918 WILSON’S PEACE PLAN “Fourteen Points” - January 1918 No secret alliances/treaties Freedom of the seas Lower tariffs to foster trade Arms reduction ( to lessen militaristic impulses) Self-determination of colonies
Treaty of Versailles Allied countries could not agree on what the treaty should include, but... They could agree on where it should take place: A French palace in a city called Versailles (near Paris, France) –In 1919, leaders from countries involved in the war met here to write a treaty –Treaty outlined the terms of the winners and what they expected of the losing country
1. Territorial losses - overseas territories, and land in France 2. Military restrictions - limits army, forbids navy and air force 3. War guilt clause - sole responsibility for war, $33 billion in war reparations 4. League of Nations formed - Germany, Russia excluded THE TREATY of VERSAILLES Punish Germany JUNE 28, 1919
FRANCE USA BRITAIN “SIGN THE TREATY OR WE WILL INVADE YOU……ITS YOUR CHOICE!” The treaty was dictated to Germany-- they did not have a say in it.
Not only did Germany lose about 10% of its land, it also consequently lost 10% of its population. German people were now living in foreign countries. Land taken away from Germany under the treaty of Versailles
“Today in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles the disgraceful Treaty is being signed. Do not forget it. The German people will press forward to reconquer the place among nations to which we deserve. Then will come revenge for the shame of 1919.” Excerpt from a German newspaper on the day the treaty was signed...
GERMANY: humiliated, blamed for war, no way to pay back reparations RUSSIA: Russia excluded from League, high casualties, loss of territory GLOBAL Self Determination: NO support for Constitutional government in SE Asia THE TREATY of VERSAILLES “A flawed peace”
Wilson’s GOAL Lasting peace; world peace keeping organization
The Debate of US entry into the LEAGUE OF NATIONS