Presentation on theme: "1 Government Control during WWI Espionage Act : Made it a crime to spy, sabotage, refuse military service if drafted, or obstruct military recruitment.(1917)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Government Control during WWI Espionage Act : Made it a crime to spy, sabotage, refuse military service if drafted, or obstruct military recruitment.(1917) Sedition Act : Made it a crime punishable by imprisonment to say anything “disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government or armed forces.(1918)
When the United States entered the war in 1917, Germany increased U-boat attacks, hoping to win the war before American troops could make a difference. Convoys of British and American ships, protected by warships, provided better safety at sea.
Several factors gave the Central Powers an advantage on land. The Allies were exhausted from years of fighting. Russia was torn apart by revolutions at home. Communists gained control of Russia, and their leader Vladimir Lenin signed a treaty with Germany in 1918, ending Russian involvement in the war. The closing of the Eastern Front allowed Germany to send more troops to the Western Front.
In the spring of 1918, Germany began an all-out offensive on the Western Front. The attacks threatened to break through Allied defenses and open a path to Paris. More American soldiers began to arrive, and U.S. troops carried more of the burden of fighting.
War is Over On November 3, 1918, Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allies. The same day the German sailors mutinied. November 9 th, socialist leaders in Berlin, established a German republic and the Kaiser gave up his throne. On November 11 th at the 11 th hour Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed an armistice. No major battle, no Allied soldiers on German soil. Germans were too exhausted to continue. 5
The Big Four met with the leaders of the other Allied countries to discuss the fate of Europe, the former Ottoman empire, and various colonies. The Paris Peace Talks The Central Powers and Russia were not allowed to take part in the negotiations at the conference.
Goals of the Allies at the Paris Peace Conference Woodrow Wilson “Peace without victory” based on the Fourteen Points David Lloyd George Money to rebuild and improve Britain Georges Clemenceau A weakened Germany Vittorio Orlando Lands promised to Italy in secret treaties People of Eastern European empires National states of their own
The Big Four at the Treaty of Versailles Britain: David Lloyd – George Felt GB should be given Germany’s colonies Wanted Germany weakened in some way Felt GB should have some control of the seas
The Big Four France : George Clemenceau Wanted French troops on the Rhineland guarding against future attacks Wanted Alsace-Lorraine back- taken in 1870 Wanted Germany to pay for everything
The Big Four Italy: Vittorio Orlando Wanted extra land for Italy Wanted his FAIR SHARE from the spoils of war
USA: Woodrow Wilson Wilson’s Fourteen Points made specific proposals to promote future peace. Practice open diplomacy. Allow freedom of the seas. Encourage free trade. Reduce arms stockpiles. Scale back colonialism. Encourage self-determination of nations. Establish a League of Nations.
However, Allied leaders at Versailles wanted reparations. European leaders did not share Wilson’s vision of peace without victory. They wanted Germany to pay for war damages. They also wanted to protect European colonialism and expand their countries’ territories.
Wilson did succeed in establishing the League of Nations, a group of more than 40 countries formed to negotiate disputes in an effort to avoid future wars. Because of opposition to the League, the United States Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. The United States never joined the League of Nations. Although it promised collective security, the League proved ineffective in preventing future wars.
The German delegates were horrified because the Allies: Forced Germany to accept full blame for the war Imposed reparations of $30 billion on Germany Severely limited the size of the German military Took land and overseas colonies from Germany In June 1919, the Allies forced Germany to sign the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany had to accept total responsibility for starting the First World War. this was called the War Guilt Clause or Article 231.
Germany had to pay $30 billion in reparations to cover war damages and other Allied losses. These were called reparations.
In 1919, one loaf of bread cost 1 mark; by 1923, the same loaf of bread cost 100 billion marks. 4.2 marks = 1 U.S. dollar at the outbreak of World War I By November 1923, the American dollar was worth 4,210,500,000,000 German marks
Germany had to hand over some 70,000 square kilometres of land. This accounted for about 13% of all of her land and six million of her people who lived there.