Presentation on theme: "Microelectronics for the real world: “Moore” versus “More than Moore” Presented by Juree Hong IEEE 2009 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC) John."— Presentation transcript:
Microelectronics for the real world: “Moore” versus “More than Moore” Presented by Juree Hong IEEE 2009 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC) John P. Kent EEE8052 Special Topics in Optoelectronics and Photonics
Contents Introduction “More-than-Moore” : functional diversification -Power over ethernet: XtreMOS -More-than-Moore in automotive applications -Microbolometer -Bio-field effect transistors for medical applications (Lap on a chip) -System-in-package (SiP) and System-on-chip (SoC) solutions Summary and Conclusion References
Introduction For more than 40 years, the semiconductor industry ability to follow Moore’s law has been the entire of a virtuous cycle: through transistor scailing Better performance to cost ratio of products An exponential growth of the semiconductor market Moore’s law & significant improvements in economy Large R&D investment The virtuous circle of the semiconductor industry
Introduction “More-than Moore” Definition: Incorporation into devices of functionalities that do not necessarily scale according to "Moore's Law“, but provide additional value in different ways. The "More-than-Moore" approach allows for the non-digital functionalities to migrate from the system board-level into the package (SiP) or onto the chip (SoC).
Introduction The CMOS transistor : the basic building block for logic devices –represents the digital content of an integrated circuit. However, many microelectronic products will have non-digital functionalities as well. The “More-than-Moore” is to incorporate digital and non-digital functionality into compact system. A new tend of functional diversification : “More-than Moore” CMOS in reducing the critical dimensions while keeping the electrical field constant!!
Introduction MtM technologies focus on the interface between “Analog” and the “Digital” world. Interfacing the digital and analog world will require: High voltage High power RF technologies In can be realized by intergrating MEMs, sensors, and actuators either by SiP or SoC A new tend of functional diversification : “More-than Moore”
Introduction Product innovation in MtM technologies is differenciated by circuit design, architecture, embedded software and unique process technology. These MtM products can be manufactured in proven technologies for high reliability. Some of the MtM products enabled by innovation and functional diversification. “More-than Moore” Innovation driven technology roadmap A new virtuous cycle
More-than Moore: Functional diversification MarketProductChallengeMtM innovation Consumer Industrial 1. POE (power over ethernet) High voltage, Low Ron, Cable discharges, EOS High voltage device architecture, robust ESD protection Automotive 2. Motor drivers, sensors, actuators Harsh environment Thick power metal to distribute heat, Bond 8mm wire to address vibration Automotive, Industrial, Consumer 3. Micro-bolometer Operation at ambient temperature with low dark noise New sensing material integrated into CMOS Medical 4. Bio sensors (Lab on a chip) Integration of bio sensing materials in CMOS Converging microelectronics with bio sensing materials Consumer Medical 5. Demand for dense memories Dense memory integration in CMOS SiP (System in package)
More-than Moore innovation (1) Power over Ethernet (PoE) – The ability for the LAN switching infrastructure to provide power over a copper ethernet cable to an endpoint or powered devices. MtM innovation enables POE. A 1D silicon limit XtreMOS devices – Low R on, by a factor of 3 Power over ethernet: XtreMOS XtreMOS cross section
More-than Moore innovation (2) Semiconductor electronics contents are more than 50 % of the total electronics by value. Challenging requirements High voltages to drive motors, relays, communication interfaces, sensors, and optical drivers Extreme mechanical stress such as vibrations Integrated technologies such as non-volatile memory and significant analog and digital integration Robust environment (high temperature to 200 °C) High reliability (<1 part per million failure rate “More than Moore” in automotive applications Growth trend in automotive electronics The applications of electronics in a car Thick top metal & 8 mm wire bonding
More-than Moore innovation (3) Infrared imaging for military applications / on quantum detection – Operated at liquid nitrogen temperature Restricted use of this technology An innovation in microbolometer technology – Microbolometer : a specific type of bolometer used as a detector in a thermal camera – New materials in the CMOS process : infrared thermal detection at room temperature – Low cost infrared imaging system for automotive, industrial applications Microbolometer: IR sensors for automotive, military, industrial and consumer applications Infrared lightDiode type micro-bolometers (128x128 array)
More-than Moore innovation (3) A bolometer operation – Infrared radiation absorbed infrared radiation into an infrared absorbing material temperature rise resistance change – Bolometer resistance change makes the current change read out current change by a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) Vanadium oxide (Vox) – One of the materials used to detect temperature changes in bolometer – Wavelength range : 9 – 14 μm A block diagram of a complete sensor circuit – CMOS process technology as a ROIC and an integrated micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) Microbolometer: IR sensors for automotive, military, industrial and consumer applications
More-than Moore innovation (3) Fabrication of microbolometer – A combined MEMS/CMOS process – Various interconnect elements of the pixel : readout contact, leg, and a bridge Application – Increasing beyond military use – Automotive safety, security, consumer electronics Microbolometer: IR sensors for automotive, military, industrial and consumer applications
More-than Moore innovation (4) Lab on a chip – A device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size with the handling of extremely small fluid volumes Ion sensing field effect transistor (ISFET) – Ion sensitive materials as a gate – Ion concentration change threshold voltage change change in transistors’ I-V characteristics Quick diagnostic is possible with portable Lab-on-Chip. Bio-Field effect transistors (FETs) for medical applications Lab on chip developed by NASAMicrofluidic bio-molecule detectorISFET built on a CMOS process flow
More-than Moore innovation (5) Innovations in packaging : System-in-package (SiP) – A SiP optionally contain passives, MEMS, optical components and other packages and devices. Integrating multiple circuits into a single chip : System-on-chip (SoC) – In the MtM we may want to emphasize that “a single integrated circuit” is in fact monolithic (single die) and that, consequently, all components (functions) have to be manufactured in a single (CMOS-compatible) process technology. System-in-package (SiP) and system-on-chip (SoC) and solutions to conventional scaling Circuit component in a 3D SiPProgrammable Systems on Chip Lab
More-than Moore innovation (5) Low cost solutions – For the continued improvement in density, performance, and size SiP provides advantages over SoC in most markets. SiP technology – Wafer-level packaging – Die stacking – Through-silicon vias (TSV) – Embeded actives and passives *ITRS meeting, 2007 System-in-package (SiP) and system-on-chip (SoC) and solutions to conventional scaling SiP provides a solution to achieve cost effective functional diversification (More-than-Moore)!
More-than Moore innovation (5) Small form factors High functional density Large memory capacity High reliability Low package cost Rapid time-to-market Wireless connectivity Extensive packages SiP requirements System-in-package (SiP) and system-on-chip (SoC) solutions to conventional scaling The highest level of integration is achieved through 3-D packaging.
More-than Moore innovation (5) ①Wafer thinning : 8 μm by 2015 ②Reliability – Coherent crack formation, interfacial delamination, voids and pore formation, material decmposition ③Thermal dissipation issue ④Signal and power integrity and shielding – Cross talk, impedance discontinuities, and timing skew ⑤Testing of SiP – Fine pitch capabilities, low cost, no damage – Pre-packaging test, electrical test, assembly of chip, functional test of the packaged chip SiP Challenges System-in-package (SiP) and system-on-chip (SoC) solutions to conventional scaling Back-side integrated fluidic heat sink Without and with metallic shield
Summary and conclusion Enabling Moore’s law requires large R&D investments. Overall R&D spending by semiconductor companies worldwide increased at an annual average rate of 10%. Thus keeping up with scaling is becoming expensive and unaffordable. However, a new trend of functional diversification is emerging that does not necessarily scale but provides additional value to the customer: “More-than-Moore” This approach allows the development of new products through innovation in circuit design, process modules architecture, embedded software, unique process technology and packaging solutions. Packaging advances (SiP and SOC) allow non-digital functions such as RF, power control, passive components, sensors and actuators to migrate from the system board level into a package level implementation. However, 3D level SiP integration has many challenges such as power dissipation, noise shielding, reliability and testing. These challenges have to be resolved before SiP technology can meet its potential.
References J. Appels and V. Vaes, “HV thin layer devices (resurf devices,” IEDM Technical Dig., 1979, p238. T. Fujihira, “Theory of semiconductor superjunctiondevices”, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 36, 1997 p6254. P. Moens et al, “XtreMOS, the first integrated power device breaking the silicon limit”, IEDM, 2006, p919. A.P. Soldatkin et al, Sensors and Actuators, 1985, no 8, p91 F. Scheller, F. Schubert, Biosensors, 1992, p. 92 Young-Chul Lee and Byung-Ki Sohn, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 2002, Vol.40, p.601. M. Kollar, Measurement Science Review, Vol. 6, 2006, p39. G.F Blackburn, Biosensors, 1987, p M. Kraus et al, Bioscope I, 1993 p. 24. ITRS, Assembly and Packaging, 2007, p.40 B.Dang, M.S. Bakir and J. Meindl, IEEE, EDL, 2006, vol.27, p M.S. Bakir, B. Dang and J. Meindl, IEEE, CICC, 2007