Presentation on theme: "SPECIALIZED RESCUE AWARENESS"— Presentation transcript:
1SPECIALIZED RESCUE AWARENESS Rope RescueConfined Space RescueTrench Rescue
2Personal Protective Equipment for Specialized Rescue Operations Personal protective equipment – Structural fire fighting turnout gear worn by most fire fighters is often not appropriate for most rescue situations.
3Personal Protective Equipment The type of fire fighting personal protective equipment that is most appropriate for Special Rescue would be a style that most resembles wildland fire fighters.
4Personal Protective Equipment Helmet – regular structural fire fighting helmets are not recommended due to their size and weight so a hard hat style that resembles a wildland helmet but have chin straps and are specifically designed for rescue work.
5Personal Protective Equipment Eye protection – in operations there are numerous opportunities for flying debris to enter the rescuers eyes.
6Personal Protective Equipment FootwearTurnout boots are not recommendedLeather boots which provide a good combination of function and protection.When selecting boots, ensure that is lightweight, has non-slip tread, provide ankle support, and be appropriate for the environment they are being used in.
7Personal Protective Equipment Gloves –A medium-weight leather glove with reinforced palms are the best for rope rescue.They combine movement with good dexterity while giving good protection.
8Rope Rescue Life safety rope and Component equipment
9Qualifications of a Rescue Technician For certification, the rescue technician shall perform all of the job performance requirements in Chapter 5 of NFPA 1006 and all job performance requirements listed in at least one of the specialty areas.
10BackgroundRegulations- NFPA 1983, Standard on fire service life safety rope, harness, and hardware, is the primary standard covering the types of equipment used.The standard also covers the minimum performance standards for the life safety rope, harness, and hardware the rescuers use to support themselves and victims during actual or exercise rope rescue operations.
11BackgroundWAC Life Safety ropes, harnesses, and hardware protection.WAC Rope rescue operations.WAC Appendix B- Life safety ropes.See Handouts
12Rope Rescue Equipment Rope Rope falls into two classifications: a. Life Safetyb. Utility
13Rope Rescue EquipmentLife safety rope is used to support rescuers and victims during an actual incident or training.Utility rope is used for hoisting tools and equipment.
14Rope Rescue EquipmentThe inspection of the rope shall be performed before the rope is put in to service, also before and after each use to ensure that the rope has not been compromised.
15Rope Rescue EquipmentThe following items below should be considered before the life safety rope is put back in use.The rope has not been visibly damagedThe rope has not been exposed to heat, direct flame impingement, or abrasion.The rope has not been subjected to any impact load
16Rope Rescue Equipment4. The rope has not been exposed to liquids, solids, gases, mists, or vapors of any chemical or other material that can deteriorate rope 5. The rope passes inspection when inspected by a qualified person using the manufactures specifications
17Rope Rescue EquipmentLife safety rope is generally ½ “ in diameter and of kernmantle construction. The minimum breaking strength for two-person rope is 9,000lbs.The maximum working load for life safety rope is the maximum amount of weight that may be supported by the rope in use.
18Rope Rescue EquipmentThere has traditionally been two types of rope used in life safety situations.Dynamic ropeStatic rope
19Rope Rescue EquipmentDynamic rope is used when long falls are possible like in a rock climbing situation due to it’s high elasticityDynamic rope is designed to stretch up to 60% of its length without breaking
20Rope Rescue EquipmentStatic rope is the rope of choice for most rescue incidents.It is only designed to stretch 20% of its length before breaking thus it is better suited for heavy haul applications
21Rope Rescue Equipment Life safety rope logs The log tracks the use and maintenance of that piece of rope and will help determine when to retire the rope.
22Rope Rescue Equipment Webbing Flat webbing Tubular webbing Mainly used in rescue work for straps and harnesses.Tubular webbingMost commonly used webbing in the fire service
23Rope Rescue Equipment Harness Class I – fastens around the waist, and is intended for emergency escape for one person.Class II – Fastens around the waist and around the thighs and may be used in two person rescuesClass III – Fastens around the waist and thighs and also over the shoulders. It is designed to support two-person loads
24Rope Rescue Equipment Hardware – Mechanical devices needed to fully and safely utilize rope rescue and to construct mechanical advantage systemsThe following are types of hardware
25HardwareCarabinersConsist of a metal loop with a hinged gate to close the opening
26HardwareRescue RingSteel ring specifically designed for rescue applications
27Hardware Rigging plates Used for attaching systems or multi-directional loads
28Hardware Figure 8 plates consists of a double ring of steel or anodized aluminum, with one ring larger then the other
29Hardware Brake Bar Rack Repelling device using a U-shaped rod with six friction bars between
38SystemsAnchor systems – Provides a safe and dependable means of securing the rescue rope to a “bomb proof” anchor point.The most common types of anchor systems used are single point, and load sharing.
39SystemThe most common type of single point anchor is the tensionless anchor.
40SystemsLoad sharing anchors are used when there is doubt about the anchor point being able to carry the expected load.Load sharing anchors also distribute the weight between two different points.
41Systems A third type of anchor is the self adjusting anchor point. This is used when the load point is expected to change direction of pull.In a multi anchor system the critical angle must be watched so that it does not exceed 120 degrees. The optimal angle is 90 degrees.
42SystemsMechanical advantages – Various types of hauling systems using rope, pulleys, carabiners, and webbing.Mechanical advantage systems are broken into two groups simple and compound.
43Systems Simple systems Compound systems Simple systems are your 4:1, 3:1 systems.Compound systemsCompound systems are when one simple system is attached to another to multiply the mechanical advantage.One disadvantage to the compound systems are that they take a lot of rope.
45Confined Space Rescue Awareness Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work.Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit.Is not designated for continuous occupancy
46Confined Space Rescue Awareness Permit required confined spaceIn addition to meeting all the criteria for a confined space, have one or more of the following:Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere.Contains a material that has the potential of engulfing an entrant.Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward to a smaller cross section.Contains any other recognized safety hazard.
47Confined Space Rescue Awareness Permit required confined spaceThe written entry permit must be posted at the entry point andMust list more than a dozen essential items of information about the space.Work to be done in the spaceWho will do it
48Examples of Confined Spaces: TanksManholesBoilersFurnacesSewersSilosHoppersVaultsPipesTrenchesTunnelsDuctsBinsPits
50Confined space hazards Environmental HazardsDarknessTemperature extremesNoiseMoistureDust
51IDLH IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE OR HEALTH Any condition which poses an immediate threat to the health of life on an entrant, or;Would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or;Would interfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a permit space.
52CONTAMINANTS: ROUTES OF ENTRY InhalationIngestionAbsorptionInjection
53Always test theair at various levelsto be sure that theentire space is safe.Good AirPoor AirGood air near the opening does NOT mean there is good air at the bottom!Deadly Air
54Confined Space Rescue Awareness PPE requirements
56Tactical considerations Phase 1: Assessment on arrivalPrimary assessment (size-up)Information gatheringHow many victims- are they injured or merely trapped?How long have they been down?Are they conscious and if so can they communicate?Are they all in the same confined space?Is there an entry permit available?
57Tactical considerations Decision MakingContact victimInterview witnessesExamine permitsMonitor atmosphere within the spaceIdentify hazardsEvaluate what has been done and is being doneWeigh risks vs. benefits of available optionsEvaluate adequacy of initial responseContact expert assistance from Operations or Technician level experts
58Tactical considerations Secondary assessment (size-up)· Type of space· Condition of space· Contents of space· Mode of operation- rescue vs. body recovery
59Tactical Considerations Phase 2: Pre-Rescue OperationsFinalizing the incident action planGathering the necessary resources- both personnel and equipmentMonitoring and managing the atmosphere inside the spaceOxygen concentrationFlammablesToxicsVentilation through mechanical means
60Tactical Consideration Making the space structurally stable enough to enterLockout/Tag out proceduresInternal hazardsShoringLighting
61Tactical Considerations Ensure that there is adequate communications capability to allow the action plan to be carried out safelyVoice communicationLifelineHard-wired phonesPortable radios
62Tactical Considerations Phase 3: Rescue OperationsPersonnel should be prohibited from entering except to assist trained rescuersAccountability of team membersSearchVictim treatment/stabilizationVictim removal
63Tactical Considerations Phase 4: TerminationEquipment retrieval vs. equipment abandonmentInvestigation- review and critique the operationRelease of controlCritical Incident Stress Debriefing
75Trench Rescue Awarenes Trench rescue hazardsPhysical hazardsSecondary collapseBulges in trench wallHorizontal cracks or fissures in trench wallLoose chunks falling from trench wallWater seeping into trenchLoose material suddenly falling from the lip of the trenchUnstable DebrisUnsupported utilities
76Tactical Considerations Phase 1- Assessment on arrivalInformation gatheringhave all workers been accounted forhow many victims are thereis their location knownare they fully or partially buriedhow much time has elapsed since cave-inwhat has been done so far
77Tactical Considerations Decision makingCan the units on scene or en route handle the situation?Do additional units need to be called?- call them immediatelyHe first-in officer MUST assume command and begin to form an IAP
78Tactical Considerations Scene controlIsolate the area of the collapse- establish hot, warm, and cold zonesShut off all vehicles and prevent traffic within 300 feet of the trench
79Tactical Considerations Secondary AssessmentType of soil- may have to rely on workers at the sceneCondition of trenchWhat type of cave-in occurred?Did one or both walls collapse?What type of shoring will be needed?Are there hazards in and around the trench?Mode of Operation- rescue or recovery?
80Tactical Considerations Phase 2- Pre-rescue OperationsIncident action plan-MANDATORYBackup plan should be availableGathering resources- the sooner they are called, the sooner they will get there. Call for everything that might be needed.Personnel- specially trainedEquipment- specialized
82Tactical Considerations VentilationPositive- blowing fresh air into the trenchNegative- draw contaminants outPreparing the sceneMitigating hazards- such as leaking gas or water pipes and electrical linesFire protection- hose lines or extinguishers on stand-byShoringLadders- should be placed at both ends of the protection system, no farther than 25 feet apart
83Tactical Considerations Phase 3- Rescue OperationsPersonnel accountabilitySearch/rescuePersonnel should not enter the trench unless assisting properly trained rescue personnel
84Tactical Considerations Phase 4- TerminationEquipment retrievalIdentifying/collectingDismantlingInvestigation- review and critiqueRelease of ControlCritical Incident Stress Debriefing