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Presentation on theme: "SPECIALIZED RESCUE AWARENESS"— Presentation transcript:

Rope Rescue Confined Space Rescue Trench Rescue

2 Personal Protective Equipment for Specialized Rescue Operations
Personal protective equipment – Structural fire fighting turnout gear worn by most fire fighters is often not appropriate for most rescue situations.

3 Personal Protective Equipment
The type of fire fighting personal protective equipment that is most appropriate for Special Rescue would be a style that most resembles wildland fire fighters.

4 Personal Protective Equipment
Helmet – regular structural fire fighting helmets are not recommended due to their size and weight so a hard hat style that resembles a wildland helmet but have chin straps and are specifically designed for rescue work.

5 Personal Protective Equipment
Eye protection – in operations there are numerous opportunities for flying debris to enter the rescuers eyes.

6 Personal Protective Equipment
Footwear Turnout boots are not recommended Leather boots which provide a good combination of function and protection. When selecting boots, ensure that is lightweight, has non-slip tread, provide ankle support, and be appropriate for the environment they are being used in.

7 Personal Protective Equipment
Gloves – A medium-weight leather glove with reinforced palms are the best for rope rescue. They combine movement with good dexterity while giving good protection.

8 Rope Rescue Life safety rope and Component equipment

9 Qualifications of a Rescue Technician
For certification, the rescue technician shall perform all of the job performance requirements in Chapter 5 of NFPA 1006 and all job performance requirements listed in at least one of the specialty areas.

10 Background Regulations- NFPA 1983, Standard on fire service life safety rope, harness, and hardware, is the primary standard covering the types of equipment used. The standard also covers the minimum performance standards for the life safety rope, harness, and hardware the rescuers use to support themselves and victims during actual or exercise rope rescue operations.

11 Background WAC Life Safety ropes, harnesses, and hardware protection. WAC Rope rescue operations. WAC Appendix B- Life safety ropes. See Handouts

12 Rope Rescue Equipment Rope Rope falls into two classifications:
a. Life Safety b. Utility

13 Rope Rescue Equipment Life safety rope is used to support rescuers and victims during an actual incident or training. Utility rope is used for hoisting tools and equipment.

14 Rope Rescue Equipment The inspection of the rope shall be performed before the rope is put in to service, also before and after each use to ensure that the rope has not been compromised.

15 Rope Rescue Equipment The following items below should be considered before the life safety rope is put back in use. The rope has not been visibly damaged The rope has not been exposed to heat, direct flame impingement, or abrasion. The rope has not been subjected to any impact load

16 Rope Rescue Equipment 4. The rope has not been exposed to liquids, solids, gases, mists, or vapors of any chemical or other material that can deteriorate rope 5. The rope passes inspection when inspected by a qualified person using the manufactures specifications

17 Rope Rescue Equipment Life safety rope is generally ½ “ in diameter and of kernmantle construction. The minimum breaking strength for two-person rope is 9,000lbs. The maximum working load for life safety rope is the maximum amount of weight that may be supported by the rope in use.

18 Rope Rescue Equipment There has traditionally been two types of rope used in life safety situations. Dynamic rope Static rope

19 Rope Rescue Equipment Dynamic rope is used when long falls are possible like in a rock climbing situation due to it’s high elasticity Dynamic rope is designed to stretch up to 60% of its length without breaking

20 Rope Rescue Equipment Static rope is the rope of choice for most rescue incidents. It is only designed to stretch 20% of its length before breaking thus it is better suited for heavy haul applications

21 Rope Rescue Equipment Life safety rope logs
The log tracks the use and maintenance of that piece of rope and will help determine when to retire the rope.

22 Rope Rescue Equipment Webbing Flat webbing Tubular webbing
Mainly used in rescue work for straps and harnesses. Tubular webbing Most commonly used webbing in the fire service

23 Rope Rescue Equipment Harness
Class I – fastens around the waist, and is intended for emergency escape for one person. Class II – Fastens around the waist and around the thighs and may be used in two person rescues Class III – Fastens around the waist and thighs and also over the shoulders. It is designed to support two-person loads

24 Rope Rescue Equipment Hardware
– Mechanical devices needed to fully and safely utilize rope rescue and to construct mechanical advantage systems The following are types of hardware

25 Hardware Carabiners Consist of a metal loop with a hinged gate to close the opening

26 Hardware Rescue Ring Steel ring specifically designed for rescue applications

27 Hardware Rigging plates
Used for attaching systems or multi-directional loads

28 Hardware Figure 8 plates
consists of a double ring of steel or anodized aluminum, with one ring larger then the other

29 Hardware Brake Bar Rack
Repelling device using a U-shaped rod with six friction bars between

30 Hardware Pulleys Single-sheave, Double-sheave

31 Hardware Edge rollers

32 Knots To use the equipment just described in the last section, rope and webbing must usually be tied into knots See Handout

33 Knots Becket bend

34 Knots Figure 8 family

35 Knots

36 Knots Water Bend

37 Knots Clove Hitch Bowline

38 Systems Anchor systems – Provides a safe and dependable means of securing the rescue rope to a “bomb proof” anchor point. The most common types of anchor systems used are single point, and load sharing.

39 System The most common type of single point anchor is the tensionless anchor.

40 Systems Load sharing anchors are used when there is doubt about the anchor point being able to carry the expected load. Load sharing anchors also distribute the weight between two different points.

41 Systems A third type of anchor is the self adjusting anchor point.
This is used when the load point is expected to change direction of pull. In a multi anchor system the critical angle must be watched so that it does not exceed 120 degrees. The optimal angle is 90 degrees.

42 Systems Mechanical advantages – Various types of hauling systems using rope, pulleys, carabiners, and webbing. Mechanical advantage systems are broken into two groups simple and compound.

43 Systems Simple systems Compound systems
Simple systems are your 4:1, 3:1 systems. Compound systems Compound systems are when one simple system is attached to another to multiply the mechanical advantage. One disadvantage to the compound systems are that they take a lot of rope.

44 Any Questions About Ropes?

45 Confined Space Rescue Awareness
Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work. Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit. Is not designated for continuous occupancy

46 Confined Space Rescue Awareness
Permit required confined space In addition to meeting all the criteria for a confined space, have one or more of the following: Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere. Contains a material that has the potential of engulfing an entrant. Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward to a smaller cross section. Contains any other recognized safety hazard.

47 Confined Space Rescue Awareness
Permit required confined space The written entry permit must be posted at the entry point and Must list more than a dozen essential items of information about the space. Work to be done in the space Who will do it

48 Examples of Confined Spaces:
Tanks Manholes Boilers Furnaces Sewers Silos Hoppers Vaults Pipes Trenches Tunnels Ducts Bins Pits

49 Confined space hazards
Atmospheric hazards Oxygen deficiency (<19%) Oxygen enrichment (23%) Flammability Toxicity Physical Hazards Structural Instability Debris Engulfment

50 Confined space hazards
Environmental Hazards Darkness Temperature extremes Noise Moisture Dust

Any condition which poses an immediate threat to the health of life on an entrant, or; Would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or; Would interfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a permit space.

Inhalation Ingestion Absorption Injection

53 Always test the air at various levels to be sure that the entire space is safe. Good Air Poor Air Good air near the opening does NOT mean there is good air at the bottom! Deadly Air

54 Confined Space Rescue Awareness
PPE requirements

55 How important is your attendant?

56 Tactical considerations
Phase 1: Assessment on arrival Primary assessment (size-up) Information gathering How many victims- are they injured or merely trapped? How long have they been down? Are they conscious and if so can they communicate? Are they all in the same confined space? Is there an entry permit available?

57 Tactical considerations
Decision Making Contact victim Interview witnesses Examine permits Monitor atmosphere within the space Identify hazards Evaluate what has been done and is being done Weigh risks vs. benefits of available options Evaluate adequacy of initial response Contact expert assistance from Operations or Technician level experts

58 Tactical considerations
Secondary assessment (size-up) ·    Type of space ·    Condition of space ·    Contents of space ·    Mode of operation- rescue vs. body recovery

59 Tactical Considerations
Phase 2: Pre-Rescue Operations Finalizing the incident action plan Gathering the necessary resources- both personnel and equipment Monitoring and managing the atmosphere inside the space Oxygen concentration Flammables Toxics Ventilation through mechanical means

60 Tactical Consideration
Making the space structurally stable enough to enter Lockout/Tag out procedures Internal hazards Shoring Lighting

61 Tactical Considerations
Ensure that there is adequate communications capability to allow the action plan to be carried out safely Voice communication Lifeline Hard-wired phones Portable radios

62 Tactical Considerations
Phase 3: Rescue Operations Personnel should be prohibited from entering except to assist trained rescuers Accountability of team members Search Victim treatment/stabilization Victim removal

63 Tactical Considerations
Phase 4: Termination Equipment retrieval vs. equipment abandonment Investigation- review and critique the operation Release of control Critical Incident Stress Debriefing

64 Any questions about confined spaces?

65 Trench Rescue Awareness
Definition of a trench

66 A trench according to OSHA

67 Not a trench

68 Types of collapses Slough-in Sidewall-in Shear-in Spoil-in

69 Slough-in

70 Sidewall-in

71 Shear-in AKA: Lip-in

72 Spoil-in To prevent a spoil-in the spoil pile is to be at least 2 feet from the lip and laid back less than 45 degrees

73 What hazards could you encounter in this environment?


75 Trench Rescue Awarenes
Trench rescue hazards Physical hazards Secondary collapse Bulges in trench wall Horizontal cracks or fissures in trench wall Loose chunks falling from trench wall Water seeping into trench Loose material suddenly falling from the lip of the trench Unstable Debris Unsupported utilities

76 Tactical Considerations
Phase 1- Assessment on arrival Information gathering have all workers been accounted for how many victims are there is their location known are they fully or partially buried how much time has elapsed since cave-in what has been done so far

77 Tactical Considerations
Decision making Can the units on scene or en route handle the situation? Do additional units need to be called?- call them immediately He first-in officer MUST assume command and begin to form an IAP

78 Tactical Considerations
Scene control Isolate the area of the collapse- establish hot, warm, and cold zones Shut off all vehicles and prevent traffic within 300 feet of the trench

79 Tactical Considerations
Secondary Assessment Type of soil- may have to rely on workers at the scene Condition of trench What type of cave-in occurred? Did one or both walls collapse? What type of shoring will be needed? Are there hazards in and around the trench? Mode of Operation- rescue or recovery?

80 Tactical Considerations
Phase 2- Pre-rescue Operations Incident action plan-MANDATORY Backup plan should be available Gathering resources- the sooner they are called, the sooner they will get there. Call for everything that might be needed. Personnel- specially trained Equipment- specialized

81 Tactical Considerations
Atmospheric monitoring Oxygen Flammables Toxic gasses

82 Tactical Considerations
Ventilation Positive- blowing fresh air into the trench Negative- draw contaminants out Preparing the scene Mitigating hazards- such as leaking gas or water pipes and electrical lines Fire protection- hose lines or extinguishers on stand-by Shoring Ladders- should be placed at both ends of the protection system, no farther than 25 feet apart

83 Tactical Considerations
Phase 3- Rescue Operations Personnel accountability Search/rescue Personnel should not enter the trench unless assisting properly trained rescue personnel

84 Tactical Considerations
Phase 4- Termination Equipment retrieval Identifying/collecting Dismantling Investigation- review and critique Release of Control Critical Incident Stress Debriefing

85 The End Questions? Quiz?


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