3ObjectivesRecognize regulations governing operations in Confined SpacesIdentify the definition of permit and non-permit Confined Space.Identify differences between Confined Space and permit Confined Space.Identify equipment required to mitigate a Confined Space Rescue.
4The Facts Approximately 60 deaths a year are in Con Space. 60% of these deaths are rescuers.
5What Hurts Us 65% Hazardous Atmospheres 13% Engulfment 7% Struck by falling object6% Heat stress/exhaustion4% Others
6A Confined Space is :Large enough to get into and perform assigned work, andHas limited or restricted means of egress, andIs not designed for continuous occupancy
7A “Permit” CS :Contains or has the potential to have a hazardous atmosphere orContains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant orHas an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or a floor which tapers orContains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
21Atmospheric Monitoring: Initially and prior to entry all atmospheres shall be tested.The testing will provide information that will:Help select PPEDetermine areas where protection is needed.Assess the potential health affectDetermine the need for specific medical monitoring.
22Gas Monitoring Equipment Most are real timeSingle gas monitorsMulti-gas monitorsMust be portable
23Monitoring for Oxygen The percentage of oxygen in atmosphere Most monitors read 0% - 25%19.5% % is typically acceptableWill alarm at either levelDisadvantages:*Must calibrate to settings*May be damaged by certain gases or vaporsAdvantages:*Quick response time*Portable
24Monitoring for Flammables Second priority to oxygenMay not read if oxygen is <10%Uses LELNot 0% - 100% vapor in air10% of LEL, not 10% of vapor.Usually calibrated to pentane or hexaneAdvantages:* Fast Response* Simple Operation* Audible/Visual Alarms* Portable* Choice of SamplingDisadvantages:*Calibrated to one gas*False Readings in Low Oxygen Areas.*May be Damaged by Compounds
26Phases of Confined Space Rescue PreparationAssessmentPre-entry operationsEntry operationsTermination
27Phase I Preparation Rescue team evaluation Equipment evaluation Hazard evaluationPersonnel evaluationICS
28Preparation: Equipment Evaluation Respiratory protection:- SAR or SCBA- Enough for entry& back-up- Victim??VentilationAtmospheric monitoringLockout / TagoutPPELightingCommunicationRope, harnesses, & hardwarePatient packagingFall protection, tripods, davitsPassport systems / tracking
29Preparation: Hazard Evaluation Sites of high likelihood:- Industry- Projects- Water treatment / sewageMAKE CONTACT!!What do they do?What do they store?What can hurt you?How do you control it?Are they trained?
30Phase II AssessmentApproach assessmentResource assessment
31Assessment: Approach Assessment Enroute game planAt scene:Number of patientsLocation & last time contactedType of spaceLocation of entry pointsUse of spaceOther hazardsPre-entry measuresDETERMINE SURVIVABILITY PROFILE!!
32Assessment: Resource Assessment Compile all approach assessment informationDevelop a planLook at what resources you have, and what’s enroute.Is it enough? Call early!
33Assessment: Documentation Before entering document all safety measuresPermits, atmosphere readings, safety checklistIF IT ISN’T WRITTEN OR TAPED IT NEVER HAPPENED!!
34Phase III Pre-entry Operations General area safety:Hot, warm, cold zonesGeneral area ventilationOutside ignition sourcesRescue area safety:Huddle up – make assignmentsAtmosphere monitoringVentilationEntry team support – medical screenPre-entry briefExpected physical challengesSpace layout & hazards
35Phase IV Entry & Rescue Operations Duties of Rescue Group Supervisor:Develops & manages the planDuties of Attendant:Monitor atmosphere & recordMaintain log of entry teamsStay in communication with entry & supervisor
36Entry and Rescue Cont: Duties of Entry Teams: Watch out for each other, hazards, & space / patient condition (L&I)Communicate with attendant & each otherAssess patient and extricate appropriatelyBrief additional teams
37Entry and Rescue Cont: Duties of Back-up teams: Stand by in a ready position (no other assignments)Duties of Rigging Team:Build & manage retrieval systemProvide patient packagingDuties of Air Supply:Lots of spares, or cascade
38Entry and Rescue Cont: Other Positions Medical Decon Cops (scene safety)
39Phase V Termination Document exit time Medical evaluation & rehab Report space & patient conditionWrap up equipment & deconSecure the spacePIA