3 Objectives Recognize regulations governing operations in Confined Spaces Identify the definition of permit and non- permit Confined Space. Identify differences between Confined Space and permit Confined Space. Identify equipment required to mitigate a Confined Space Rescue.
4 The Facts Approximately 60 deaths a year are in Con Space. 60% of these deaths are rescuers.
5 What Hurts Us 65% Hazardous Atmospheres 65% Hazardous Atmospheres 13% Engulfment 13% Engulfment 7% Struck by falling object 7% Struck by falling object 6% Heat stress/exhaustion 6% Heat stress/exhaustion 4% Others 4% Others
6 Confined A Confined Space is : Large enough to get into and perform assigned work, and Large enough to get into and perform assigned work, and Has limited or restricted means of egress, and Has limited or restricted means of egress, and Is not designed for continuous occupancy Is not designed for continuous occupancy
7 Permit A Permit CS : Contains or has the potential to have a hazardous atmosphere or Contains or has the potential to have a hazardous atmosphere or Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant or Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant or Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or a floor which tapers or Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or a floor which tapers or Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
18 Dangers of Confined Spaces Oxygen deficiency By-products of previously stored material Accidental leaks/spills Chemical reactions Mechanical operations
19 Types of Confined Space Hazards Atmospheric Hazards Physical Hazards Engulfment Hazards Corrosive Hazards Biological Hazards Other Hazards
20 Atmospheric Monitoring
21 Atmospheric Monitoring: Initially and prior to entry all atmospheres shall be tested. The testing will provide information that will: Help select PPE Determine areas where protection is needed. Assess the potential health affect Determine the need for specific medical monitoring.
22 Gas Monitoring Equipment Most are real time Most are real time Single gas monitors Single gas monitors Multi-gas monitors Multi-gas monitors Must be portable Must be portable
23 Monitoring for Oxygen The percentage of oxygen in atmosphere The percentage of oxygen in atmosphere Most monitors read 0% - 25% Most monitors read 0% - 25% 19.5% % is typically acceptable 19.5% % is typically acceptable Will alarm at either level Will alarm at either level Disadvantages: Disadvantages: *Must calibrate to settings *May be damaged by certain gases or vapors Advantages: Advantages: *Quick response time *Portable
24 Monitoring for Flammables Second priority to oxygen Second priority to oxygen May not read if oxygen is <10% May not read if oxygen is <10% Uses LEL Uses LEL Not 0% - 100% vapor in air Not 0% - 100% vapor in air 10% of LEL, not 10% of vapor. 10% of LEL, not 10% of vapor. Usually calibrated to pentane or hexane Usually calibrated to pentane or hexane Advantages: Advantages: * Fast Response * Simple Operation * Audible/Visual Alarms * Portable * Choice of Sampling Disadvantages: Disadvantages: *Calibrated to one gas *False Readings in Low Oxygen Areas. *May be Damaged by Compounds
25 You Dont Want to be this Guy? Do You?
26 Phases of Confined Space Rescue Preparation Assessment Pre-entry operations Entry operations Termination
27 Phase I Preparation Rescue team evaluation Equipment evaluation Hazard evaluation Personnel evaluation ICS
28 Preparation: Equipment Evaluation Respiratory protection: - SAR or SCBA - Enough for entry & back-up - Victim?? Ventilation Atmospheric monitoring Lockout / Tagout PPE Lighting Communication Rope, harnesses, & hardware Patient packaging Fall protection, tripods, davits Passport systems / tracking
29 Preparation: Hazard Evaluation Sites of high likelihood: - Industry - Projects - Water treatment / sewage MAKE CONTACT!! What do they do? What do they store? What can hurt you? How do you control it? Are they trained?
30 Phase II Assessment Approach assessment Resource assessment
31 Assessment: Approach Assessment Enroute game plan At scene: Number of patients Location & last time contacted Type of space Location of entry points Use of space Other hazards Pre-entry measures DETERMINE SURVIVABILITY PROFILE!!
32 Assessment: Resource Assessment Compile all approach assessment information Develop a plan Look at what resources you have, and whats enroute. Is it enough? Call early!
33 Assessment: Documentation Before entering document all safety measures Permits, atmosphere readings, safety checklist IF IT ISNT WRITTEN OR TAPED IT NEVER HAPPENED!!
34 Phase III Pre-entry Operations General area safety: Hot, warm, cold zones General area ventilation Outside ignition sources Rescue area safety: Huddle up – make assignments Atmosphere monitoring Ventilation Entry team support – medical screen Pre-entry brief Expected physical challenges Space layout & hazards
35 Phase IV Entry & Rescue Operations Duties of Rescue Group Supervisor: Develops & manages the plan Duties of Attendant: Monitor atmosphere & record Maintain log of entry teams Stay in communication with entry & supervisor
36 Entry and Rescue Cont: Duties of Entry Teams: Watch out for each other, hazards, & space / patient condition (L&I) Communicate with attendant & each other Assess patient and extricate appropriately Brief additional teams
37 Entry and Rescue Cont: Duties of Back-up teams: Stand by in a ready position (no other assignments) Duties of Rigging Team: Build & manage retrieval system Provide patient packaging Duties of Air Supply: Lots of spares, or cascade
38 Entry and Rescue Cont: Other Positions Medical Decon Cops (scene safety)
39 Phase V Termination Document exit time Medical evaluation & rehab Report space & patient condition Wrap up equipment & decon Secure the space PIA