2Objectives After this module you should be able to identify the most common confined space hazardstake the necessary steps to avoid those hazards
3What is a Confined Space? A confined space is a space thatis large enough for a person to enter and workhas limited or restricted means of entry and exitis not designed for continuous occupancy
4Permit-Required Confined Space A permit-required confined space has at least one of the following characteristicscontains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmospherecontains a material that has the potential to engulf an entranthas an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiatedcontains any other recognized serious safety and health hazard
5Confined Space Hazards Oxygen deficiencyFlammable/combustible gases and vaporsToxic gasesEngulfment in solid or liquidHigh noise levelsGrinding, crushing, or mixing mechanismsConfigurationExtreme temperaturesChemicalsLack of lighting
6this is one example of a permit-required confined space This is a permit-required confined space because it contains one of the hazardous conditions listed back on slide 4.always follow your company’s permit procedures, even if you are going in for just a second
7this confined space may be oxygen deficient or contain flammable, combustible, or toxic gases or vapors[ (d)(5)(iii)] In atmospheres that are oxygen-deficient, an air-supplying respirator must be used. This type of respirator is a full-face respirator that supplies air from a cylinder you wear on your back or a line runs to your respirator from an fresh air source. In atmospheres that have enough oxygen, but contain air contaminants.,an air-purifying respirator could be worn. This is generally either a full- or half-face respirator that includes a filter cartridge to clean the air before you breath it in (such as the one pictured).test the atmosphere in this order: oxygen content, then flammables, then toxics, then other hazards
8Good Air Poor Air Deadly Air test the atmosphere at all levels of the confined space; good air near the opening doesn’t mean good air at the bottomGood AirPoor AirDeadly Air
9the atmosphere inside a confined space may not be suitable for entry [ (c)(5)(ii)[E]] Be sure that the source of air for your forced-air ventilation is fresh (i.e. – not near a diesel exhaust source, etc.).forced-air ventilation may be used, but you are not permitted to enter until the atmosphere is suitable
10atmospheric conditions may change while you are in the confined space [ (d)(5)(ii)]periodically monitor the atmosphere within the confined space
11Get Out!If a hazardous atmosphere is detected while a worker is in the confined spaceall activities should stopthe worker(s) should exit immediatelythe hazard should be evaluatedprotective measures should be taken[ (c)(5)(ii)[G]]
12if a worker must wear a respirator, remember that an air-purifying respirator will do nothing in an oxygen deficient atmosphereThis photograph shows a rescue team wearing air-supplying respirators inside a confined space, in this case a tank.If a hazardous atmosphere exists in the confined space such as toxic gases, an appropriate air-purifying respirator may be used. However, if the confined space has a lack of oxygen, an air-purifying respirator will do no good – there is no supply of oxygen to breath in the first place. In this situation, an entrant would need to wear an air-supplying respirator, like the ones shown in this photograph. These will supply breathable air and will protect the entrant from breathing in hazardous air from the atmosphere of the confined space.these workers are wearing air-supplying respirators due to a lack of oxygen
13adequate illumination should be provided where lighting is limited [ (d)(4)(v)]in some cases, explosion-proof lighting may be necessary
14use lockout/tagout on all hazardous items some confined spaces can contain mixing or crushing mechanisms or other hazards that can be turned on and injure a workerThis photograph shows a tank on a site that has a couple of lines connected to it. One or more of these lines could be a supply line and, if not properly locked and tagged out, could turn on while an entrant is in the tank blowing hot liquid onto the entrant or drown the entrant, for example. Also, the tank may be fitted with a mixing or compacting mechanism inside that could turn on while the entrant is in the tank.Always lock and tag out any item on or in the confined space that can cause harm to an entrant.use lockout/tagout on all hazardous items
15Duties of Attendants Knows the hazards Maintains an accurate count of entrantsRemains outside the permit space until relieved by another attendantMaintains regular communication with entrantsMonitors conditions inside and outside of the permit space[ (i)] The authorized attendant should know information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure and be aware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure in authorized entrants. The attendant should order entrants to evacuate the permit space immediately under the following conditions:if the attendant detects a prohibited conditionif the attendant detects the behavioral effects of hazard exposure in an authorized entrantif the attendant detects a situation outside of the space that could endanger the authorized entrantif the attendant cannot effectively and safely perform all the duties required
16Duties of Attendants Summon rescue services when needed Ensures unauthorized personnel do not enter permit space or affect operationsPerforms non-entry rescuesPerforms no other duties that might interfere with primary duty to monitor and protect the entrant(s)
17it is possible for a worker to be overcome by a sudden change in atmospheric conditions OSHA says that the employer must develop and implement procedures for summoning rescue and emergency services, for rescuing entrants from permit spaces, for providing necessary emergency services to rescued employees, and for preventing unauthorized personnel from attempting a rescue [ (d)(9)].ensure that a rescue procedure is in place in case an entrant needs to be removed from a confined space in an emergency
18the reserve pit is a permit-required confined space because of its potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere and to drown a workerThis photograph shows the reserve pit on a drilling site. Just like with every other confined space, a harness and tag line should be worn by the entrant. In this case, the entrant could fall into the pit and never be able to make it back out. If the entrant is wearing a harness and a tag line attached to it, however, the worker that is monitoring the entrant can pull the entrant out of the pit by the tag line attached to the entrant’s harness.
19Additional Concerns Noise Slippery or wet surfaces amplified due to acoustics of the spacedamages hearing and affects communicationSlippery or wet surfacesincreased risk of falls and electrical shockPersonal protective equipmentmore common ppe such as hard hat, hard-toed boots, safety glasses, face shield, gloves, and overalls must be worn when neededHot workAny noise that is produced in or around the confined space is most likely going to be amplified due to the configuration and small size of the space. This will temporarily or permanently damage hearing and will affect the communication between the entrant and the monitor.Hot work within a confined space compounds the problem and therefore the need for continuous atmospheric monitoring.
21Your Employer Is Responsible For Providing atmospheric testing equipmentIf necessary, providing ventilation equipment and/or respiratory protectionProviding and training on confined space permits and the written programDeveloping and training on emergency action and rescue plansResponding to and correcting hazards pointed out by you, the worker
22You Are Responsible For Testing the atmosphere prior to entryPeriodically monitoring the atmosphere for possible changesFollowing permit proceduresEnsuring that there is at least one authorized attendant present at all timesCorrecting the hazards you are able to correctReporting to your supervisor the hazards you are unable to correct
23Case StudyAn employee climbed inside a tank to unclog a line but did not test the tank’s atmosphere. The tool he was using produced a spark that ignited the atmosphere.A 23-year-old worker died when he entered a permit-required confined space. The mechanic was assigned to unclog a line. The tank had been purged with an inert nitrogen atmosphere. He was told to wait for the entry supervisor to arrive, he entered the tank for an unknown reason, apparently without first testing the atmosphere, and died of asphyxiation. When the victim was discovered about an hour later, a coworker jumped into the tank, again without testing the atmosphere first, and lifted the victim up to others standing on top of the tank. Testing by fire department responders showed the atmosphere at the bottom of the tank to be about 12% oxygen, below the minimum safe level of 19.5% oxygen.Ask the class for 3-4 things that may have contributed to this worker losing his life.Possible Answers: Not waiting. Entering without a permit. Not testing air. Not obeying sign. Any others?As the class for 3-4 recommendations for preventing a similar incident.Possible Answers: Allows follow instructions, company policy and signage. Never enter a permit required confined space with first testing the air. Any others?
24Always Remember Test the atmosphere prior to entry and periodically Never enter a confined space if the atmospheric conditions are not suitableEnsure an attendant is outside the confined space at all timesFollow your company’s confined space permit
25Memory Check What is the correct order of atmospheric testing? flammables, toxics, oxygen, othertoxics, oxygen, flammables, otheroxygen, toxics, flammables, otheroxygen, flammables, toxics, otherThe correct answer is d. oxygen, flammables, toxics, other.
26Memory CheckA space that meets the definition of a confined space and contains other recognized serious safety and health hazards is what?a confined spacea permit-required confined spacea non-permit-required confined spacenot a confined spaceThe correct answer is b. a permit-required confined space.