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World War I War Breaks out in Europe. Vocabulary Militarism: the belief that a nation needs a large military Central Powers: an alliance of Austria-Hungary,

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Presentation on theme: "World War I War Breaks out in Europe. Vocabulary Militarism: the belief that a nation needs a large military Central Powers: an alliance of Austria-Hungary,"— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I War Breaks out in Europe

2 Vocabulary Militarism: the belief that a nation needs a large military Central Powers: an alliance of Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria during World War I Allies: an alliance of Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, and seven other countries during World War I Trench warfare: a kind of warfare during World War I in which troops huddled at the bottom of trenches and fired artillery and machine guns at each other

3 Vocabulary U-boat: German submarine; unterseeboot Woodrow Wilson: President of the U.S. during World War I; he “kept us out of the war” until Germany sunk the Lusitania and sent the Zimmerman telegram to Mexico Neutrality: refusing to take sides in a war Zimmerman Telegram: a message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered the war

4 Causes of World War I Imperialism: larger countries competed with each other to gain control of smaller, weaker nations Asia and Africa and make them colonies Nationalism: citizens had strong feelings of pride, loyalty and protectiveness towards their own country; they would do anything for their country Militarism: European powers began increasing their military strength Alliances: Many European nations were involved with alliances with each other; If one went to war their allies were dragged in as well; Two main alliances were the Triple Entente and Triple Alliance

5 Pre – War Alliances

6 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand – June 28 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie are visiting Sarajevo. On their way to the town hall a member of the Serbian group The Black Hand tried to assassinate them by throwing a grenade. It bounced off and blew up under the car following them injuring two. After the town hall reception, they wanted to visit the injured at the hospital. On the way there the driver went the wrong way and was backing up slowly when Gavrilo Princip saw them from a corner café. He fired two shots into the car killing both the Archduke and his wife. When he tried to kill himself police and others arrested him.

7 Archduke Franz Ferdinand

8 Gavrilo Princip Serbian nationalist that was part group, The Black Hand Killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife Sophie Captured and found guilty Was only 19 at the time so he was spared the death penalty and was given twenty years. He died of tuberculosis 4 years later.

9 Who’s on Whose Side Allies Serbia Russia France Great Britain United States (1917) Belgium Italy Romania Greece Central Powers Austria-Hungary Germany Ottoman Empire Bulgaria

10 Kaiser Wihelm II Germany Franz Josef Emperor of Austria King of Hungary Central Power Leaders Sultan Mehmed V Ottoman Empire

11 Allied Leaders Czar Nicholas II Russia King George V Great Britain Woodrow Wilson United States

12 Europe - 1914

13 Trench Warfare

14 Life in the Trenches

15 Trench Foot Many soldiers fighting in the First World War suffered from trench foot. This was an infection of the feet caused by sold, wet and unsanitary conditions. In the trenches men stood for hours on end without being able to remove wet socks or boots. The feet would gradually go numb and the skin would turn red or blue. If untreated, trench foot could turn gangrenous and result in amputation. Trench foot was a particular problem in the early stages of the war. For example, during the winter of 1914-15 over 20,000 men in the British Army were treated for trench foot. The only remedy for trench foot was for the soldiers to dry their feet and change their socks several times a day. By the end of 1915 British soldiers in the trenches had to have three pairs of socks with them and were under orders to change their socks at least twice a day. As well as drying their feet, soldiers were told to cover their feet with a grease made from whale- oil. It has been estimated that a battalion at the front would use ten gallons of whale-oil every day.

16 New Technology Machine guns

17 Poison Gas New Technology

18 Airplanes

19 New Technology Tanks

20 New Technology U – Boats and ships “Unterseeboot”

21 Sinking of the Lusitania

22 Zimmerman Telegram Coded Decoded

23 Russian Revolution - 1917 Czar Nicholas II Vladimir Lenin

24 1. What were the long term causes of World War I? The long term causes of World War I were: imperialism, nationalism, militarism and alliances. 2. Why were Americans divided over the issue of remaining neutral? Americans did not want to go to war, but they were angry about German attacks on merchant ships and the Zimmerman telegram’s threat. 3. Why was Russia’s withdrawal from the war in 1917 a blow to the Allies? Russia’s withdrawal from the war was a blow to the Allies because it allowed Germany to sent more of their soldiers to the Western Front. Section 1 Review

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