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Fractures and Bone Healing

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1 Fractures and Bone Healing

2 Statistics • Fractures of extremities most common
• More common in men up to 45 years of age • More common in women over 45 years of age Before 75 years wrist fractures (Colles’) most common • After 75 years hip fractures most common

3 Types of fractures Magnitude and direction of force Closed
– Bone fragments do not pierce skin Open/compound – Bone fragments pierce skin Displaced or undisplaced

4 Transverse fracture Usually caused by directly applied force to fracture site

5 Spiral or Oblique Caused by violence transmitted through limb from a distance (twisting movements)

6 Greenstick Occurs in children: bones soft and bend without fracturing completely

7 Crush fractures Fracture in cancellous bone: result of compression (osteoporosis)

8 Burst fracture Occurs in short bones, e.g. vertebra from strong direct pressure such as impaction of disc.

9 Avulsion fracture Caused by traction, bony fragment usually torn off by a tendon or ligament. What muscle group attaches to this bony prominence and what nerve also runs in close proximity? Forearm flexors (common flexor origin) ulnar nerve

10 Fracture dislocation/subluxation
Fracture involves a joint: results in malalignment of joint surfaces.

11 Impacted fracture Bone fragments are impacted into each other.

12 Comminuated fracture Two or more bone pieces - high energy trauma

13 Comminuated fractures can require serious hardware to repair.

14 Stress fracture Abnormal stress on normal bone (fatigue fracture) or normal stress on abnormal bone (insufficiency fracture).

15 Functions of the X-ray Localises fracture and number of fragments
Indicates degree of displacement Evidence of pre-existing disease in bone Foreign bodies or air in tissues May show other fractures MRI, CT or ultrasound to reveal soft tissue damage

16 How to Handle Fractures
Reduction Open reduction – Allows very accurate reduction – Risk of infection – Usually when internal fixation is needed Manipulation – Usually with anaesthesia Traction – Fractures or dislocation requiring slo

17 Holding the reduction 4-12 weeks External fixation Internal fixation
– Intermedually nails, compression plates Frame fixation

18 External fixation Used for fractures that are too unstable for a cast. You can shower and use the hand gently with the external fixator in place.

19 Frame fixation Allows correction of deformities by moving the pins in relation to the frame.

20 Internal fixation

21 Bone Healing 1. Fracture hematoma
– blood from broken vessels forms a clot. – 6-8 hours after injury – swelling and inflammation to dead bone cells at fracture site

22 2. Fibrocartilaginous callus
(lasts about 3 weeks (up to 1st May)) – new capillaries organise fracture hematoma into granulation tissue - ‘procallus’ – Fibroblasts and osteogenic cells invade procallus. – Make collagen fibres which connect ends together – Chondroblasts begin to produce fibrocatilage,

23 3. Bony callus (after 3 weeks and lasts about 3-4 months)
– osteoblasts make woven bone.

24 4. Bone Remodeling Osteoclasts remodel woven bone into compact bone and trabecular bone – Often no trace of fracture line on X-rays.


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