Presentation on theme: "Bone Fractures (Breaks)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Bone Fractures (Breaks) Bone fractures are classified by:The position of the bone ends after fractureThe completeness of the breakThe orientation of the bone to the long axisWhether or not the bones ends penetrate the skin
2 Types of Bone Fractures Nondisplaced – bone ends retain their normal positionDisplaced – bone ends are out of normal alignmentNondisplaced or Displaced?
3 Types of Bone Fractures Complete – bone is broken all the way throughIncomplete – bone is not broken all the way throughLinear – the fracture is parallel to the long axis of the boneLinear fracture
4 Types of Bone Fractures Transverse – the fracture is perpendicular to the long axis of the boneCompound (open) – bone ends penetrate the skinSimple (closed) – bone ends do not penetrate the skinTransverse of the tibia
5 Common Types of Fractures Comminuted – bone fragments into three or more pieces; common in the elderlySpiral – ragged break when bone is excessively twisted; common sports injuryDepressed – broken bone portion pressed inward; typical skull fractureSpiral
6 Common Types of Fractures Compression – bone is crushed; common in porous bonesEpiphyseal – epiphysis separates from diaphysis along epiphyseal lineGreenstick – incomplete fracture where one side of the bone breaks and the other side bends; common in children
10 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture 1. Hematoma formationTorn blood vessels hemorrhageA mass of clotted blood (hematoma) forms at the fracture siteSite becomes swollen, painful, and inflamedFigure
11 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture 2. Fibrocartilaginous callus formsGranulation tissue (soft callus) forms a few days after the fractureCapillaries grow into the tissue and phagocytes (White blood cells) begin cleaning debrisFigure
12 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture 3. Bony callus formationNew spongy bone appears in the fibrocartilaginous callusFibrocartilaginous callus converts into a bony (hard) callusBone callus begins 3-4 weeks after injury, and continues until firm union is formed 2-3 months laterFigure
13 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture 4. Bone remodelingExcess material on the bone shaft exterior and in the medullary cavity is removedCompact bone is laid down to reconstruct shaft wallsFigure
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