Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System Lecture Day 2: Joints, Fractures, and the Healing Process."— Presentation transcript:
Skeletal System Lecture Day 2: Joints, Fractures, and the Healing Process
Joints hold bones together, giving stability, yet at the same time, give our skeleton mobililty. There are three types of joints: Fibrous: bones connected by fibrous tissue (no movement) Cartilaginous: bones connected by cartilage (slightly movable) Synovial: articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity and inside is synovial fluid (allows for more movement)
Examples of Fibrous joints Bones of skull Pelvic bones
Synovial joints are found in all limbs and allow for various movements. There are 6 main types of synovial joints: a)Plane joints (gliding movements i.e. in wrist) b)Hinge joints (uniaxial movement i.e. in elbow) c)Pivot joints (rotation movements i.e. radioulnar joint) d)Condyloid joints (some sideways movements i.e. in metacarpels) e)Saddle joints (slight rotation & sideways movements i.e. in thumb) f)Ball and socket joints (uniaxial movements & full rotation i.e. in hip and shoulder)
Although bones are strong, they are susceptible to breaks (fractures) all throughout life. The most common times in life for fractures to occur are during youth (due to excessive activity, sports, and bad judgement) and in the elderly (due to bone thinning and weakening, often due to osteoporosis).
Six most common types of fractures: 1)Comminuted 2)Compression 3)Depressed 4)Impacted 5)Spiral 6)Greenstick
Comminuted fractures: bone breaks in many fragments.
Impacted fractures: broken bone ends are forced into each other.
Spiral fractures: ragged break occurs during twisting.
Greenstick fractures: bone breaks incompletely (like a young twig).
The process of fracture/bone healing: 1)A hematoma is formed. Blood vessels are ruptured when bone breaks. As a result, a blood-filled swelling forms. Bone cells are deprived of nutrition and die. hematoma (swelling)
2) The break is splinted by a fibrocartilage callus. Connective tissue cells of various types form a mass of repair tissue called fibrocartilage callus (containing cartilage matrix, bony matrix, and collagen fibers) which act to “splint” the broken bone, closing the gap.
3) A bony callus is formed. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts migrate to the area and multiply. Thus the fibrocartilage callus is gradually replaced by one made of spongy bone, known as the bony callus.
4) Lastly, bone remodeling occurs. Over the next few weeks to months, the bony callus is remodeled in response to mechanical stresses placed on it, so that it forms a strong permanent (bone) patch at the fracture site.