Presentation on theme: "Clinical Disorders and Diseases of the Skeletal System."— Presentation transcript:
Clinical Disorders and Diseases of the Skeletal System
Cleft Palate Occurs when the roof of a baby's mouth doesn't fully develop (palatine bones fail to fuse) leaving an opening (cleft) in the palate that may go through to the nasal cavity. It is a birth defect that happens during pregnancy and can affect either the soft or hard palate. Cleft palate is treatable, and surgery is usually recommended.
Vertebral Column: Curvatures Scoliosis: abnormal lateral curvature of the spine – Occurs most often in the thoracic region Most common during adolescence and girls are more prone to developing the condition If muscles on one side of the body are not functioning properly, those on the opposite side tug on the spine and force it out of alignment
Clinical Conditions Osteomalacia – Literally “soft bones.” – Includes many disorders in which osteoid is produced but inadequately mineralized. Causes can include insufficient dietary calcium Insufficient vitamin D fortification or insufficient exposure to sun light. Rickets – Children's form of osteomalacia – More detrimental due to the fact that their bones are still growing. – Signs include bowed legs, and deformities of the pelvis, ribs, and skull.
Age and Bones Bone loss outpaces bone regeneration Bones weaken and lose mass Bones become brittle and fractures occur more often Found most often in women Clinical Conditions
Fractures A break in the bone Simple – bone breaks cleanly Compound – the broken bone ends have broken through the skin Greenstick – bone splits and bends, does not break (seen only in children)
Steps in the Repair of a Fracture Step 1 – Immediately after the fracture, extensive bleeding occurs. A large blood clot, or fracture hematoma, soon closes off the injured vessels and leaves a fibrous meshwork in the damaged area. The disruption of the circulation kills osteocytes around the fracture. Dead bone soon extends along the shaft.
Steps in the Repair of a Fracture Step 2 – The cells of the endosteum and periosteum undergo cell division and the daughter cells migrate into the fracture zone. An external callus forms and encircles fracture An internal callus organizes within the cavity and between the broken ends of the shaft
Steps in the Repair of a Fracture Step 3 – Osteoblasts replace the central cartilage of the external callus with spongy bone Calluses form a brace at the fracture site Spongy bone now unites the broken ends Fragments of dead bone are removed and replaced
Steps in the Repair of a Fracture Step 4 – Osteoclasts and osteoblasts continue to remodel the region of the fracture (4 months to 1 year) When remodeling is complete, the bone of the calluses is gone and only living compact bone remains. The bone could be slightly thicker and stronger than normal at the fracture site
Treatment of a Fracture Initial treatment for fractures of arms, legs, hands, and feet include splinting the extremity in the position it is found, elevation, and ice. Edema (what does this have to do with splinting and casting?) Closed Reduction – manual realignment