The student should be able at the end of this lecture to recognize various radiographic principles of fractures.
“A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. A bone fracture can be the result of high force impact or stress, or trivial injury as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, and bone cancer.”
* A fracture is a broken bone that depending upon physical pressure or stress that was exerted on the bone,it can be a large or small fracture. Symptoms of a fracture are: swelling, deformity, pain, and loss of function. Treatment for fracture is to get an x-ray, reduction, fixation, surgery, and rehabilitation.
There are several types of fractures such as closed, comminuted, compound, compression, fracture, greenstick, impacted, oblique, pathologic, spiral, stress, and transverse.
Signs and symptoms of fracture can vary depending on both the individual and the type of fracture Some general signs and symptoms of fracture include: Local Pain Local Swelling Discoloration Deformity/Dislocation Inability to apply pressure Low pulse below fracture Possible nerve damage (numbness/paralysis)
Is a wrist fracture. Is a transverse fracture of radius Is a common fracture in elders, children, and women. Elders and children can fall easily and fall in their wrist putting stress in that particular area causing it to break. Colles’ fractures can occur in women due to postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Symptoms of colles’ fracture are: wrist pain, swelling of wrist, deformity of wrist, unable to do activities with the hand. What to do when a colles’ fracture happens? * Rest injured arm in a elevated position on a pillowed or a soft surface. * Put ice on wrist to reduce inflammation Treatment *Get an x-ray to indicate reduction, possible surgery and rehabilitation. Prevent falling and hurting same wrist and follow a well balance diet.
Fracture in which bone is shattered, or crushed into many small pieces” Is a multi-fracture in a bone causing it to brake in many parts in the same region. At least three broken pieces in the same region of the bone should be present to be a comminuted fracture. A comminuted fracture is one of the most painful fractures and one of the fractures that take longer to heal.
Is a fracture that occurs in elderly people or people with weak bones. People with cancer are prominent to have this kind of fracture due to weak bones. Symptoms where fractured happens are: swelling, warm, and cant handle weight. Complications of comminuted fracture can include compartment syndrome and necrosis when bone fails to join together.
Complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angle to the long axis of the bone. The bone is broken in a perpendicular manner into two pieces. This fracture is common in people that play karate or runners. Treatment to put bone together might require a cast, metal pins, or screws. Complication of transverse fracture is nerve damage.
A type of bone fracture that is caused by a twisting force. Difficult to treat, often requiring months in a cast and possible surgery. Diagnosed by x-ray and examination.
Also known as an Open Fracture. Fracture in which the broken bone pierces through the skin. Usually needs immediate surgical treatment for best healing. If left untreated, bacteria can enter the wound and cause infection. Length of healing is typically at least 2 months or more depending on the severity of the break and surgery.
Reduction of fracture (aligning of broken ends of bone) Splinting Plaster Cast Surgery Traction Metal Supports (screws, rods, plates, etc.) Rehabilitation Physiotherapy