Presentation on theme: "S OFT F LOOR C OVERINGS Definitions Types and how they are made History Installation Fibres and yarns used Current market References."— Presentation transcript:
S OFT F LOOR C OVERINGS Definitions Types and how they are made History Installation Fibres and yarns used Current market References
D EFINITIONS Floor covering is a term used to describe any finish material applied over a floor structure to provide a walking surface. It refers more to loose- laid materials. Materials classified as soft floor coverings include carpets and area rugs.
C ARPETS A carpet is a floor covering woven or felted from natural or man-made fibers. A fitted carpet is attached to the floor structure, extends wall-to- wall, and cannot be moved from place to place.
An underlay will extend carpet life and improve comfort.
R UGS Rugs are also woven or felted from fibers, but are smaller than the room in which they are located, have a finished edge, and usually lie over another finished floor such as wood flooring.
Rugs may either be temporarily attached to the flooring below by adhesive tape or other methods to prevent creep, or may be loose-laid.
T YPES Carpets and rugs are classified according to how they are made. Woven - The carpet is produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric. Most expensive due to the slow speed of the manufacturing process. Needle felt - More technologically advanced. Produced by intermingling and felting individual synthetic fibers using needles. Forms an extremely durable carpet. Found in commercial settings such as hotels and restaurants where there is frequent traffic. Knotted - Usually done by hand. On a knotted pile carpet, the structural weft threads alternate with a supplementary weft that rises at right angles to the surface of the weave. Tufted- These are carpets that have their pile injected into a backing material, which is itself then bonded to a secondary backing.
H ISTORY The first carpets and rugs were made in West Asia and the middle East in the third millennium. They sheared goats and sheep for wool and hair, then spun and wove them into carpets. The countries known for their skill in carpet and rug making and which export them are: Afghanistan, China, India, Pakistan, Persia(Iran), Spain, France and England.
I N A FRICA North African countries are the most famous African producers of carpets, due to the influence of middle Eastern countries. North African carpets and rugs were: Of low density (light) Have limited colors (usually only two, like beige and brown) Patterns used are borrowed from other regions, therefore most of them are devoid of meanings.
Western and Southern African carpets and rugs are thicker, made of cotton wool and velvet, and are silky or rough depending on the area of production. The pattern also carry deeper meanings. The significance of these designs can also vary from one society to the next. Often, today's weavers use designs and drawings to which they no longer know the meaning: the pattern no longer holds symbolism but is purely for decorative reasons.
E XAMPLES OF P ATTERNS (G ENERAL A FRICAN INTERPRETATIONS ) Geometrical shapes - square, rectangle, triangle, diamond, chevron, X -are found in the decoration of pottery crafted by women and carpets. It is generally considered that these signs have a spiritual or religious connotation: self-preservation and of one’s entities, the cult of the dead, protective magic. The central medallion : A representation of the ancient point of view in regards to man who plays a key role in source for knowledge, light, and wisdom in the world Water : matrix of all possibilities associated with the existence of man, and is symbolized by the zigzag, chevron, and the wavy line.
The broken line : the rhythm of the broken line refers to unlimited space, and may be associated to mountains. Points: grains scattered in the center of carpet, illustrate the new cycle of the seasons, fertility and abundance. Lion: symbol of power and pride, whose image gives strength and courage. It can be considered to be as "claws". The scorpion, often represented by a diamond similar to an evil monster with groping paws and antennas, is a symbol of vengeance. Other animal motifs: Symbolized the character of the represented animal
I NSTALLATION Before you begin installation, ask yourself Will there be heavy or light traffic in the room? Will there be kids or pets? Is there direct access from outside? How large is the room? These factors will influence the cost, material, and durability of the carpet or rug to be used. Also, decide between lighter and darker carpet colors. The carpet rule of thumb is that light carpets can seem to create more space in a smaller room, while a darker shade of carpet can add coziness to a bigger space. Within the general color scheme that you want for the room, select something that will enhance the space.
Preparing the Room Check the room for moisture problems. Any drainage issues in the room you're planning to carpet need to be addressed before carpeting. Remove any doors for ease of installation. You might have to sand down the bottom of the doors to ensure smooth closing after the carpet installation. Clean the concrete thoroughly. Fill in any cracks or imperfections in the surface.
Laying the Carpet Coat the floor with primer. Lay gripper strip. Cut a piece of tackless gripper strip the length of 1 wall with a utility knife, and attach it to the floor with masonry nails. The tack points should be facing the wall. Leave a gap the thickness of the carpet's pile between the gripper strip and the wall. This is where you will tuck the edges of the carpet during installation. Lay padding strips. Cut padding strips the length of the room, and place them side by side across the room. Glue the padding, waffled side up, with a carpet glue. Keep your rows abutted, and cover seams with duct tape. Trim any excess with a utility knife. Cut carpet to size, allowing approximately 6 inches (15.2 cm) excess all around. Place seam tape, adhesive side up, where pieces abut. Use a steam iron to activate the adhesive and join the pieces together. Lay carpet out and use a rented knee kicker to force the carpet into the far corner. Using the power stretcher, stretch the carpet across the room to the opposite wall. Hook the carpet onto the tackless strip. Continue this until the carpeting is smooth and flat. Generally, you'll work from the "far" corner of the room (farthest from the door) and work backward, out of the room. Finish the edges. Cut off excess carpet, and push carpet behind tackless strip, using a wide blade putty knife if necessary.
F IBRES AND YARNS USED IN CARPETRY Carpet can be made from many single or blended natural and synthetic fibres. Fibres are chosen for durability, appearance, ease of manufacture, and cost. Nylon Nylon is the most common material for construction of carpets. It can be printed easily and has excellent wear characteristics. As nylon is petroleum-based it varies in price with the price of oil. Polypropylene Polypropylene is used to produce carpet yarns because it is inexpensive. It is difficult to dye and does not wear as well as wool or nylon. Outdoor grass carpets are usually made from polypropylene.
Wool and wool-blends Wool has excellent durability, can be dyed easily and is fairly abundant. When blended with synthetic fibres such as nylon the durability of wool is increased. Blended wool yarns are extensively used in production of modern carpet, with the most common blend being 80% wool to 20% synthetic fibre, giving rise to the term "80/20". Wool is relatively expensive and consequently a small portion of the market. Polyester Polyester has good physical properties and is inherently stain- resistant because it is hydrophobic. Color is infused in a molten state (solution dyeing). Polyester has the disadvantage that it tends to crush or mat down easily. It is typically used in mid- to low-priced carpeting. Acrylic Acrylic is fairly difficult to dye but is colorfast, washable and has the feel and appearance of wool making it an ideal rug fabric.
C URRENT MARKET In Kenya, good quality carpets can be sourced easily from specialized retailers e.g. at the Tile and Carpets Centre There is also a rapidly growing market for hand- made carpets, which has created a source of employment for many people. These products are usually cheap, and, depending on the craftsman, can be of very good quality.
R EFERENCES – How to install carpets – History of carpets – Installation of carpets – Significance of carpets – Significance of African rugs and carpets Google images
MAROA N. HARRISON B02/0900/2012 MANG’ARE TRACY MORAAB02/53543/2012 MALU RUTH MWENDE B02/56592/2012