Hitler wanted to control Stalingrad so he could overtake Russia and gain control of the rich oil fields. Brutal fighting: house to house, block by block, bombing and much rubble. The Germans were starving, sick and had fostbite. German troops surrendered on January 31, 1943. Major turning point of war in Europe. Ended realistic plans of Hitler dominating Europe.
Battle of Stalingrad: Winter of 1942-1943 German ArmyRussian Army 1,011,500 men1,000,500 men 10,290 artillery guns13,541 artillery guns 675 tanks894 tanks 1,216 planes1,115 planes Stalin orders his troops to the “scorched earth policy” Germans are surrounded at Stalingrad and supply lines are cut by the Russians. Germans surrender to Soviets.
British had been fighting Germany and Italy since 1940. El Alamein (Egypt)- October 1942 British Won Next month Allied troops landed in Morocco and Algeria and began to move east toward key German positions. Dwight Eisenhower (Ike) George S. Patton, Jr.
The North Africa Campaign: The Battle of El Alamein, 1942 The North Africa Campaign: The Battle of El Alamein, 1942 Gen. Ernst Rommel, The “Desert Fox” Gen. Bernard Law Montgomery (“Monty”)
General Dwight Eisenhower4 Star, US General Dwight Eisenhower Graduate of West Point Commanded Allied invasion on North Africa in 1942 D-Day.Named Supreme Allied Commander and in charge of D-Day. WWII Military Leaders
General George PattonGeneral George Patton Graduate of West Point Tank commander and commander of the 7 th Army Germans feared Patton “ole blood and guts”“ole blood and guts” WWII Military Leaders
General Douglas MacArthur WWII Military Leaders West Point Graduate Commanding general of troops in the Philippines Forced off the Philippines in 1942--- “I shall return” 1944, Battle of Leyete Gulf---- “I have returned to re-take the Philippines”. Supreme Allied Commander in the South Pacific West Point Graduate Commanding general of troops in the Philippines Forced off the Philippines in 1942--- “I shall return” 1944, Battle of Leyete Gulf---- “I have returned to re-take the Philippines”. Supreme Allied Commander in the South Pacific
July 1943- British and American troops landed in Sicily Sept. 3, 1943 Italy surrendered and ended the rule of Mussolini Hitler made Mussolini leader of puppet state in N. Italy. Fighting continued until 1945
Starting in 1942 British began dropping bombs on German cities. Saturation Bombing Strategic bombing- trying to destroy industrial and political centers to avoid war making power. Tuskegee Airmen- African American fighters- escorted bombers and protected them from enemy fire. Helped pave the way for an Allied offensive.
D-Day, the decision day or H-day…Stalin’s 2 nd front….Largest military invasion in world history to defeat Hitler. The 5000-vessel armada stretched as far as the eye could see, transporting over 150,000 men and nearly 30,000 vehicles across the channel to the French beaches. Six parachute regiments -- over 13,000 men -- were flown from nine British airfields in over 800 planes. More than 300 planes dropped 13,000 bombs over coastal Normandy immediately in advance of the invasion. War planners had projected that 5,000 tons of gasoline would be needed daily for the first 20 days after the initial assault. By nightfall on June 6, more than 9,000 Allied soldiers were dead or wounded, but more than 100,000 had made it ashore, securing French coastal villages. Within weeks, supplies were being unloaded at UTAH and OMAHA beachheads at the rate of over 20,000 tons per day.
LCD: landing craft devices---carried 36 men…..Higgins boat--- built by individual who made boats to run on the bayou….20,000 made for the D-Day To get through the barbed war, soldiers had to blast through with 10’ pipes filled with TNT. Two portable harbors were built and transported across the English channel and setup on 1 of the British beaches and 1 with the Americans. To get fuel from England to France, an underwater pipeline was laid which connected with the portable harbors to get fuel to the front.. To fool the Germans to believing the invasion was at Calais, the Allies dropped dummy parachute soldiers….. June 6, 1944
Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [“Operation Overlord”] Big 3 Tehran Conference Supreme Allied Commander US General Dwight Eisenhower was chosen by the Big 3 at the Tehran Conference (Nov. 28-Dec. 1, 1943) as the Supreme Allied Commander and was responsible for the D- Day Invasion.
Hitler caught Allies by surprise and created a bulge in their front line and captured several key towns. After about a month of fighting on December 23, 1944 the Allies pushed Germany out of France. Battle hurt Hitler because he had to use reserve troops and it hurt his men. It shortened the time he had left.
April 1945 Mussolini tried to flee to Switzerland and was caught and executed. April 30, 1945 Hitler committed suicide along with several of his associates. May 7, 1945 Germany surrendered. V-E Day Harry S. Truman was President at the time.
FDR dies in Warm Springs, Georgia on April 12, 1945 Mussolini is executed by his own people on April 28, 1945 Hitler realizing that Berlin was about to fall, married his mistress, Eva Braun and both commit suicide on April 30, 1945.
map/japan TURNING POINT BATTLES1942 Coral Sea Midway Midway virtually destroyed Japanese Navy. TURNING POINT BATTLES1942 Coral Sea Midway Midway virtually destroyed Japanese Navy. 1943 Continued “island hopping” strategy1943
Japanese leaders were rattled by the raids—bombs might have killed the emperor!! The American fleet, they decided, had to be destroyed! They wanted to cut off their supply lines to Australia. They decided to attack Midway Island—the last American base west of Pearl Harbor. Bombs falling on Tokyo.
The Battle of Midway Code-breakers heard the plan At the Battle of Coral Sea, the Yorktown and the Lexington fended off a Japanese attack on New Guinea and preserved Australia. Code-breakers learned of plan to attack Midway Admiral Nimitz used this as an opportunity to ambush the Japanese fleet. Japanese plans were hit with antiaircraft fire, shooting down 38 planes. Japan lost 100 pilots which hurt their Air War. American planes caught carriers by surprise— their fuel, bombs, and aircraft were exposed. Four Japanese carriers were sunk, destroying the heart of the navy. This hit the Japanese hard—it halted Japanese expansion in the Pacific. Badly damaged Yorktown Fighting at the Battle of Midway Battle of Midway
Island Hopping- capturing some Japanese controlled islands and ignoring others in a steady path to Japan. This was a slow and steady process to get to Japan and end their conquering power.
Japanese Kamikaze Planes: The Scourge of the South Pacific Kamikaze Pilots Kamikaze bombers The last 2 years of the war, the Japanese resorted to “ suicidal bombers ” or Kamikaze bombers to destroy the American Navy. Approximately 2,800 Kamikaze attackers sunk 34 Navy ships, damaged 368 others, killed 4,900 sailors, and wounded over 4,800.
Iwo Jima- March 1945- 36 days of fighting= 23, 000 casualties. Americans won. Okinawa- April 1945= Most costly operation in the Pacific. Held a vital air base. 50, 000 casualties. ½ million troops and 1,213 warships. Using these places American troops could bomb Japanese Islands. March 1945- One night= B 52 bombers destroyed 16 square miles of Tokyo. Killed 83, 0000 Japanese and injured more than 100,000 more. (more than the atomic bombs)
US Marines on Mt. Surbachi, Iwo Jima [Feb. 19, 1945]
A joint Allied Project consisting of Canadian, British and U.S. scientists to build an atomic bomb. Started in 1940….. By July 1945, 3 bombs had been built. 1 bomb = 20,000 tons of TNT One would be set off in New Mexico successfully. A joint Allied Project consisting of Canadian, British and U.S. scientists to build an atomic bomb. Started in 1940….. By July 1945, 3 bombs had been built. 1 bomb = 20,000 tons of TNT One would be set off in New Mexico successfully.
My fellow Americans, the British, Chinese and United States governments have given the Japanese people adequate warning of what is in store for them. The world will note that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base. If Japan does not surrender, bombs will have to be dropped on her war industries and unfortunately thousands of civilian lives will be lost.The world will note that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base. If Japan does not surrender, bombs will have to be dropped on her war industries and unfortunately thousands of civilian lives will be lost. I urge Japanese civilians to leave industrial cities immediately and save themselves. President Harry Truman
dictators After the Nagasaki bombing, Emperor Horhito surrendered to the Allies to end WWII in Japan. “The time has come to bear the unbearable”. Japan surrenders on Aug 14, 1945. Official surrender ceremonies were held on Sept. 2, 1945 aboard the USS Missouri near Tokyo Bay. Emperor Horhito
Jap surrender Japan surrenders on Aug. 14, 1945……Official surrender ceremonies were held on Sept. 2, 1945