Presentation on theme: "4 Essential Stages of Female Reproduction Wellness 9."— Presentation transcript:
4 Essential Stages of Female Reproduction Wellness 9
Puberty in Females Puberty – the stage of growth and development when both the male and female body become capable of producing offspring. When a female is around 8 years old, the pituitary gland increases its production of a hormone called FSH. FSH travels through the bloodstream to the ovaries and causes them to secrete estrogen. Estrogen – hormone produced by the ovaries that stimulates the development of female secondary sex characteristics and affects the menstrual cycle.
Female Secondary Sex Characteristics Secondary sex characteristics – physical and emotional changes that occur during puberty. ◦ Increase in height ◦ Widening of hips ◦ Softer and smoother skin ◦ Increase in breast size ◦ Growth of pubic hair and underarm hair ◦ Enlargement of external genitals ◦ Formation of mature ova ◦ Beginning of menstruation
Managing Emotions During Puberty Sudden emotional changes and sexual feelings due to estrogen and other hormones. Everyday occurrences, such as school assignments or family responsibilities, may produce intense feelings. Most changes in the moods are normal, but females must take accountability for behaving in responsible ways even though her emotional feelings may change. (For intense sexual feelings, females must set limits, stick to those limits, and practice abstinence.)
Accepting Physical Changes Changes are noticeable between the ages of 8 and 15. The maturing process that happens in puberty is affected by a female’s heredity, diet, health habits, and health status. Example: A female who over-trains for a sport may have a delayed menstrual cycle. Females should avoid comparing her body to that of other females of the same age. Ask your parents, guardian or physician when you have questions about your growth and development.
What happens during the 4 Stages Most women have 2 ovaries, one on each side of the uterus and are connected by fallopian tubes. Ovaries contain a set number of eggs. Ovaries at birth contain 200, ,000 follicles, which are balls of cells with an immature egg in the center. This is the maximum number of follicles a female will ever have! Only approximately 400 of these eggs will mature and ovulate while the rest desolve.
One by one, the eggs in a woman’s ovaries are used up. When there are no more eggs, she does not have a period. This is called menopause. Once they run out, women cannot make anymore. Men on the other hand can produce sperm until they are very old. Women can damage or lose their eggs over a lifetime by drinking, smoking, substance abuse, medications such as HIV medications, stress, cancer treatments or other health issues.
Ovulation For women on a normal cycle, each month ONE egg is released by one of the ovaries. Ovulation is the release of a mature ovum from one of the two ovaries. When an ovum is released from an ovary, it enters one of the Fallopian tubes. As soon as the egg is released, a lining of tissue and blood is also formed in the uterus. The purpose of the lining is so that the women can hold the baby in her womb if she were to get pregnant.
Ovulation This is also the time that a woman is most likely to get pregnant. You can get pregnant if you have sex during or near the time of ovulation. During sex, sperm are released into the vagina, travel up through the cervix, through the uterus, and up to the tubes. If sperm meets an egg in the tube, fertilization can occur. If the egg and sperm do not meet during the ovulation period, the egg is absorbed into the body and the lining in the uterus breaks apart and comes out of the vaginal canal. This is called menstruation.
Ovarian Hormones Are released when the egg is released. Estrogen – Prepares the body for pregnancy. Secreted by the follicle and causes the following changes. Uterine lining thickens Cervical secretions become slippery and nourish the sperm. Cervix softens, lifts, and opens. Resting body temperature is low.
Ovarian Hormones Progesterone – Sustains pregnancy. Secreted by the corpus luteum and causes the following changes: Uterine lining thickens. Cervical secretions thicken to keep bacteria and other sperm out. Cervix firms, lowers, and closes. Resting body temperature is higher.
Sex Hormones Follicle stimulating hormone FSH- Stimulates production of eggs. Luteinizing hormone LH- signals ovulation. Estrogen- produced throughout the menstrual cycle. Progesterone-produced during second half of cycle. Contributes to thickening of the endometrium which is shed during menstrual phase if fertilization does not take place. Both FSH and LH are produced in the pituitary gland. Both estrogen and progesterone are produced by the follicles in the ovaries.
The Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is a monthly series of changes that involves ovulation, changes in the uterine lining, and menstruation. Menstruation is the period in the menstrual cycle in which the unfertilized egg and the lining of the uterus leave the body in a menstrual flow. Occurs in 28 days, this means a female will have her period every 28 days.
The Menstrual Cycle Days 1- 5 ◦Menstruation or the menstrual flow leaves the body. Days 6 – 12 ◦The uterine lining begins to thicken. Days 13 – 14 ◦Ovulation occurs. Days 15 – 20 ◦The corpus luteum secretes hormones to support pregnancy. (Corpus luteum is a temporary gland that secretes progesterone.) Days ◦The corpus luteum disintegrates if an ovum is not fertilized.
Side Effects from the Menstrual Cycle Women can experience fluid retention, cramping, mood swings, weight gain, breast tenderness, diarrhea, and constipation.
Perimenopause The menopause transition phase is called perimenopause. Physical signs of menopause begin many years before the final menstrual cycle. It can last 6 years or more and ends 1 year after the final menstrual period. Symptoms – ◦Irregular Menstrual Periods ◦Hot Flashes ◦Vaginal Dryness ◦Sleep Disturbances ◦Mood Swings A woman may be able to conceive during this time, but fertility is very low.
Menopause Normal, natural event. Menopause is the final menstrual period and is usually confirmed when a woman has missed her periods for 12 consecutive months. Associated with reduced functioning of the ovaries due to aging, resulting in lower levels of estrogen and other hormones.
Causes of Menopause Age Ovaries surgically removed. This may trigger severe symptoms because the hormone levels decrease all at once. Although the removal of the uterus (hysterectomy) ends menstrual periods, it will not cause menopause unless the ovaries also are removed.
Symptoms of Menopause At menopause, the rate of bone loss increases. Risk of osteoporosis increases!
Treatments for Menopause Hormone therapy can help relieve the symptoms of menopause.
How to Protect Female Reproductive Health Keep a calendar in which you record information about your menstrual cycle. Practice good menstrual hygiene habits. Choose habits to prevent or lessen menstrual cramps. Perform monthly breast self-examinations. Have regular medical checkups Seek medical attention when you show signs of infection. Practice abstinence from sex.
Breast Self - Examination A breast self-examination is a screening procedure for breast cancer in which a female checks her breasts for lumps and changes.
Objective Questions 15 points Explain what ovulation is and describe the menstrual cycle in its entirety. What is menopause? What hormone decreases to trigger menopause? What are 5 symptoms associated with menopause? Describe at least 3 different ways to protect female reproductive health.